Z-Wave Three Way Wiring

I would sell this kit and go with another one that is compatible with LED lighting and your wiring scheme. This one is not. If you are not into that ...Looking at the manual for this 45607 dimming 3-way... each smart device needs always-hot (which I show as black here), neutral and ground, which is fairly typical of smart devices. They need power (hotnuetral) simply to function. In this family, only the 45607 main actually switches the light, on a "switched hot" line (red here). The remote merely sends a data signal to the effect that "the human requested on/off/dim", and even though these are supposed to be wireless devices, they have a data-signal wire between them to communicate (yellow here). There can be an unlimited number of 45610 remotes -- anywhere they can get hot, ground and that yellow signal wire. I assume they are misusing ground as neutral; Code actually requires you bring a neutral anywhere you bring power, so I drew it in. And you can see where that fits pretty well with most 3-way wiring. The black and white can be used for always-hot and neutral, and the red wire can be re-tasked as the yellow signal wire. Usually. It does raise some interesting questions about the 45610 remote. Why could not it run on a couple of AA batteries? Why can not it use wireless/radio to communicate with the 45607 main? And in fact, the ZWave system has many manufacturers, another one may make a remote which does exactly that. That is worth looking into. Now, in your setup, power feeds into the lamp itself. This leaves you with a wire problem. Here it is. See, you can hook up the 45607 no problem. And it will control the light just fine. But now you've used up all your wires between lamp and main. So when it comes time to add the data-signal wire over to the 45610(s), you are out of wires. Here's the thing. The yellow wire is a data signal wire. It's not a power wire. Check with the manufacturer but you may be able to use intercom, doorbell or thermostat wiring for it, which has relaxed rules for installation. You only need to get from the main to the lamp. You can re-task the old red wire once you are there. There's one last way to make this work, but it's crazy. Put the 45607 main controller inside the fixture. Use two 45610 remotes, one at each lamp position. You will have enough wires for that

1. Where do you think technology will be 5 years from now?

Yes and No. The precise glass aquariums that should not have a specific glass like starfire are the identical now as they have been five years in the past and one of the crucial 50 yr ancient tanks I have are nonetheless running fine with so much more potent and thicker glass than they use now. Silicone has elevated even though that is over an extended interval of time and a tank that's five years ancient has the identical silicone as one that's twenty years ancient. If the tank was once dry for five years I could be worried even though if it's been used till not too long ago I would not fear approximately it. Heaters age and the technological know-how of ceramic, titaniam and different no holiday warmers has elevated plenty over the final five years even though so much glass submersible warmers are the identical now as they have been five years in the past. Remember warmers provide out over the years and that is older than a brand new one even though my 2 hundred W Visa-time period from Hagen damaged as a result of my mistakes approximately three years in the past after running fine considering that 1986. My three new steel Guardian warmers all leaked and positioned electrical energy within the aquarium in not up to one yr. I located this out by means of being stunned two times. Not a first-rate revel in. Filters: It is dependent upon what sort you have got. Canisters are similar to the ancient one's and final very good for decades. They more moderen canisters are slightly less difficult to wash even though just one canister has dramatically elevated the enterprise within the final five years and that is the Fluval FX-five even though except you are striking it in a tank of a minimum of ninety gallons it is too robust and it could create really a present in a ninety as good. Hang at the again filters are practically the identical as they have been twenty years in the past. Make definite there is not plenty of stuff across the impeller, blank it out good and you will be able to be first-class. Lights: Lighting technological know-how has fairly elevated within the final five years even though so much persons are not shopping LED lighting, energy compacts or taking knowledge of the bigger potency balasts besides. If you are making plans a reef tank or are living plant tank then there were plenty of alterations in lighting fixtures. If that is only a fundamental fish tank do not fear approximately it. Bottom line: five yr ancient aquarium equiptment is similar to what is presently to be had. I do not have any suggestion how one can provide you designated recommendation on account that I do not know the dimensions or sort of goods you are considering that even though I acquire plenty of used equiptment as good as new and I should not have any issues approximately the used equiptment that appears to be in well form. For the fee you will regularly acquire used equiptment total you are means forward of the sport.

2. Using LED Lights Saves Money for Condo Associations

As a board member, managing the finances for your condominium association is one of your chief responsibilities. Every dollar counts, and you want to make the most of your association's money. So you look at the budget. You negotiate the best deals with your vendors. And you work with your property management company to make the most of every relationship.But have you searched floor to...ceiling?That's right - a great way to save money is right over your head. Swapping traditional, incandescent light bulbs with energy-efficient LED bulbs will use less power and reduce your condo association's costs. Here we answer some typical questions to shed a little light on what you need to know about LED lighting.Change is not always easy, but the right motivation can help. In the case of switching to LED lighting, you will do best if you speak to the long-term financial benefits and present hard numbers about the reduction in energy use. If you have been benchmarking your energy use, you can also point out how LED lighting can improve your ranking. Clear before and after data demonstrating the impact that LED lighting can have is likely to inspire homeowners to want to make the investment.In Chicago, where large residential buildings are subject to energy benchmarking requirements , many buildings managed by FirstService Residential not only take advantage of our benchmarking services, but also ask us to perform energy evaluations. A detailed energy evaluation identifies improvements that will have the greatest impact on a building's energy use, as well as on an association's budget. Switching to LED lighting is often among the measures identified.LED (it stands for "light-emitting diodes") bulbs have clear financial pluses for your building. For one thing, they last much longer - from 30,000 to more than 50,000 hours longer - so you wo not need to replace them as often. Where you will really save money, however, is on your electric bill. LED bulbs use up to 75 percent less energy than traditional bulbs.One Chicago property managed by FirstService Residential that switched to LED bulbs reduced lighting costs by 81 percent in just one year. "Their lighting expenses dropped from $40,645 to just $7,811 annually," says Robert Meyer, director of engineering at FirstService Residential's FS Energy subsidiary.Yes, your condo association will need to make a significant investment up front to switch from incandescent to LED lighting. Here's how it breaks down: A traditional bulb may cost you just $6, but powering it every day for a year will cost about $87.60. On the other hand, you might pay up to $45 for an LED bulb, but it will cost only $10.51 per year to burn. That's a potential savings for your association of $38.09 per bulb in year one alone.Do not forget about that longer lifespan, too. Although you will have to buy a new incandescent bulb after as few as 2,000 hours, LED lighting will last anywhere from 15 to 25 times longer. It's true that you could buy nine of those $6 incandescent bulbs for the price of an LED bulb, but the LED bulb will last well beyond the lifespan of those nine traditional bulbs. Remember, however, that not all bulbs are created equal so do not cut corners. Be sure to look for bulbs that have an EnergyStar rating and are from a good name brand.Energy rebates can provide immediate financial relief. "Utility rebates are a great way for properties to save a little out-of-pocket cost while taking advantage of energy efficiency updates," says Meyer. Rebate funding typically occurs in January and June, but check with your local energy suppliers to find out what programs they offer and when they are funded.According to Meyer, the FirstService Residential property mentioned earlier took advantage of utility rebates when they decided to install LED lighting. Initially, the cost came to $27,552. Utility company rebates totaled $3,444, which brought the cost down to about $24,000, including installation and disposal of old lighting. "So they spent a little more than half of their previous annual lighting budget to implement energy-efficient lighting," Meyer explains. "The payback for this was 0.73 years, at an annual return on investment of 12 percent and a lifetime savings of $144,985."A quality property management company should be able to help you identify comprehensive energy and cost-saving opportunities. Meyer says that when FirstService Residential begins to manage a property, his team conducts a thorough walk-through to look for potential energy savings. "We note where 'low-hanging fruit' can be harvested to show an almost immediate return on investment to the association," he says. "This always includes upgrading lighting from existing incandescent and fluorescent to LED."Energy is one of the largest expenses for condo associations, so anything you can do to reduce your usage can have a significant impact on your budget.

3. Tips to light up your garden or terrace

Beneito Faure has would like to share its knowledge in LED lighting and it has been working for years in this field with a wide range of products for outdoor lighting. In this article, we expose the essential aspects to value the moment of choosing a good illumination for outdoor areas following the recommendations of our technical and commercial department. First of all, we need to take into account where we desire to install the product. In this case, being outdoor there are several factors to be considered.

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Domestic LED Lighting Lamp Patent Status and Top Ten Applications
The LED lighting industry has indeed developed rapidly in recent years, especially in the field of downstream applications, especially in Guangdong Province. However, after the rapid development and expansion, patents have increasingly become the bottleneck for the further development of led enterprises. Therefore, it will not be too late for the patent layout of enterprises to be done at any time, in any place and in any way.In short, patent layout is the overall goal of the enterprise's patent layout in a certain period of time in the future, and further make specific plans for each layout stage according to the enterprise's development plan to determine the patent layout tasks and measures at each stage; In each implementation stage, the Patent Management Department of the enterprise also needs to put forward more specific indicators for the number and structure of patent layout. In addition, in the implementation process, the enterprise also needs to investigate the layout plan in combination with the implementation of the patent layout plan, the adjustment of the enterprise development plan, and the changes of the external technology, industry and market environment.First, let's understand the basic situation of LED lighting lamps:LED lighting fixture is a general term of LED lamps, which refers to the appliances that can transmit light, distribute and change the light distribution of LED light source, including all parts and components required for fixing and protecting LED light source except LED light source, as well as line accessories necessary for power connection. In short, it is composed of LED light source, radiator, lamp shell, driving power supply, support, necessary circuit auxiliary devices and measures to connect them with power supply. In the 21st century, the design of room lamps and lanterns will take the design of LED lamps and lanterns as the mainstream, fully reflect the lighting development trend of energy conservation, health, artistry and humanization, and become the leading of room lighting culture.At present, the problems perplexing LED lighting technology are as follows:1. Domestic enterprises have no core technologyMost of the core patents in the upstream of the LED industry are in the hands of foreign companies. We do not master the core technology in China. Although the manufacturing capacity of our LED application products accounts for 50% and 50% in the world, it is the lowest link in the profit link. The cost of LED lighting lamps mainly lies in the LED chip. As long as the chip price is reduced, the lumen unit price of LED can be reduced to the same as that of energy-saving lamps at this stage. As the production process of LED chips with larger size wafers increases with the process and quantity, the cost will continue to be reduced. In recent years, the speed is reduced by 20% every year. In the price factor of LED chips, the improvement of light efficiency should also be included in the price reduction. Better products are purchased at the same price, so there is still much room for price reduction of LED chips.2. Difficult heat dissipation of LED application productsThe heat dissipation cost should be maintained at 5%. The actual heat dissipation design is very simple. Hold two directions: first, the shorter the path between the LED chip and the external radiator, the better your heat dissipation design; Second, the heat dissipation resistance is to have enough heat dissipation transmission paths and enough "heat dissipation roads". This part of the cost is mainly in the structure. The structural design accounts for about 20% of the lamps, and the cost for heat dissipation is not much. Now the biggest problem is how to achieve more innovative and reasonable structural design.3. LED application power supplyPower supply is the weakest link of LED lighting, which restricts the development of LED lighting. Now the design accounts for about 20% of the cost of LED lighting lamps, which is somewhat high. With the development of technology, the power supply is about 5-10%. Compared with other light sources in the afterlife, the current cost of LED light source is not high, especially led environmental protection, energy saving and mercury free. Moreover, the price of LED lighting lamps is sliding down every quarter. In a short time, the price of LED lighting lamps must reach an acceptable level.Let's take another look at the patent profile of the LED industry:Patent application disclosure trend:The national LED lighting lamps started in 2000 and reached a high peak from 2013 to 2015. It can be seen that led enterprises are stepping up their patent applications.The first four segments focus on:F21y101 / 02 miniature light sourceF21s2 / 00 lighting systemF21v29 / 00 cooling or heating deviceF21v19 / 00 fixing of light source or lamp holderIt can be seen that domestic LED lighting lamps are concentrated in light source, lighting system, heat dissipation and structure, and there are many patent layouts of fixed devices.Let's take another look at the application of the top 10 LED lamps in China:The technical layout of domestic led enterprises in the research and development of LED lighting lamps will be weaker than that in the upstream, but this will not become an obstacle to the demand of downstream enterprises. From the simple analysis of the above figure, it can be seen that the subdivided fields of LED lighting lamps should develop, that is, compared with others, such as h05b37 / 02 (control of circuit devices for general electric light sources), f21v17 / 10 (fastening of components of lighting device), f21v17 / 00 (components of lighting device), f21v31 / 00 (functional features of lighting device or its system or gas or water-proof devices of parts), the development potential of small fields is relatively large. Therefore, if the technology of LED lamps belongs to a unique field, the patent layout in this field can be considered.From another point of view, the R & D investment and patent layout of LED lighting lamps in intelligent control are relatively small. Intelligent lighting is the future development direction of LED lamps. One button switch, longitude and latitude control switch lamps to adjust the brightness of light... Intelligent lighting enables cities to have beautiful night scenery and reduce human and material expenditure and energy waste. Therefore, many large Enterprises have begun to compete for this piece of cake. They can refer to their relevant patent layout and route to choose a layout suitable for their own development.Finally, the first priority of the LED industry is to realize lighting energy conservation, which cannot be changed. As a green, energy-saving and low-carbon light source, compared with traditional lighting methods, LED lamps have the greatest advantages. Under the same brightness, the energy consumption accounts for only 1 / 3 to 1 / 6 of fluorescent lamps, and its service life is 5 to 10 times that of fluorescent lamps. Nevertheless, with the development of application and With the increase of area and high brightness broadcasting, the power consumption can not be underestimated. Therefore, led enterprises still need to lay out patents from the technical level to make their products more energy-saving and reduce the economic burden of advertising owners, so as to occupy a certain market share. At the same time, from relevant authoritative data, once led lighting products form an "explosive" Growth, popularization and promotion to the medium, high and low end can save China about the power generated by one Three Gorges power station every year.Looking at the patent layout of many led enterprises, the patent layout planning of enterprises can be divided into three time stages: short, medium and long-term:(1) Short term patent layout planningThe main task of short-term patent layout is to provide patent protection for upcoming LED products, mine patents for various technical achievements in product development, make key deployment on its advantageous technical points, and complete the established patent application volume index; at the same time, cooperate with the medium and long-term development plan of the enterprise, implement the medium and long-term patent layout, and pay attention to the next generation of products Start the laying of basic patent protection points.During this period, a large number of patent applications were rapidly accumulated in various technical points. By maintaining a certain number of patent applications and reserves, the enterprise's patent database was initially established to provide necessary intellectual property support and guarantee for the business expansion of the enterprise, so as to avoid large patent risks. In addition, while ensuring the quantity, we should not relax the requirements for quality. We should be conscious Pay more attention to the matching of patents with different protection themes and protection contents, so as to lay a foundation for the realization of patent combination.(2) Medium term patent layout planningThe main task of the medium-term patent layout is to complete the phased layout objectives in combination with the medium-term product planning and commercial development of led enterprises and the patent application status of competitors, preliminarily complete the protective patent layout, antagonistic patent layout and / or reserve patent layout according to the needs, and form a certain number of patent combinations.At this stage, patent application is a "quantity" and "quality" With equal emphasis on the process, the number of applications will generally tend to grow steadily, and the growth rate is basically consistent with the average growth rate of the industry. The purpose is to continuously improve and consolidate the formed patent library, improve the coverage of patents in products, technologies and market regions, further optimize the structural distribution of patents and improve the quality of patents.(3) Long term patent layout planningThe main task of long-term patent layout planning is to support the future market development of the enterprise in accordance with the enterprise's long-term business development strategy, product planning route and patent positioning. Generally speaking, the long-term patent layout planning of led enterprises should pay more attention to improving the overall value of patents. At this stage, the enterprise's patent reserves have reached a certain quantity, scale and structural distribution , with certain patent strength and even advantageous position in some fields, enterprises often begin to pay more attention to the following contents:â—‡ promotion of patent application value and effective control of patent cost;â—‡ carry out patent operation and obtain additional income;â—‡ rely on the control of the patent industry and actively promote the effective combination of their own patents and standards;â—‡ on the premise of maintaining its patent dominant position and confrontation ability, optimize the structure of the patent portfolio and consciously remove the redundancy in the patent library.At this stage, enterprises can consider giving up or transferring patents with low value. Moreover, based on their own economic strength and the growth of patent strength, enterprises can often take more diversified ways to improve their patent layout and supplement the patent composition in their patent portfolio, such as cross licensing, purchase and forming strategic alliances with peer enterprises Type.As for the patent layout, many teachers and celebrities in the industry are talking about it, and many enterprises are asking how to layout or implement the patent layout in an exploratory way. Everyone is feeling the stone to cross the river. The patent layout is definitely not a single way, but an all-round and multi-path design. It belongs to the enterprise, "all roads lead to Rome" , enterprises must have a horizontal and vertical way of thinking about patents, with width and depth. Let enterprises take more "detours" on the road of patents and less detours in product planning, layout, R & D and design, or the layout in front can only belong to their own way. Even if they don't go, they won't let others go easily.
Commercial LED Lighting,Warehouse and Upgrade.
Warehouse lights If you own a business spending lots of money just to pay the electricity bill, then new LED warehouse lights are for you. New warehouse lights are known for consuming so less energy. Recently warehouse lights used to consume most of the chunk of electricity. Now, we advise people to use new LED high bay lights and reduce this consumption to 400w, it also depends on the lumen needs of any business or industry.LED lights make a positive impact on the environment, and of course save money on your bill because LED lights are extremely energy efficient, the government of Victoria(Australia) took an initiative to replace old traditional lights to LED lights, and that is done under VEU scheme (Victoria energy upgrade).Source: ·RELATED QUESTIONWhat are the best ways to gain knowledge and become a subject matter expert in a new product closedIn my opinion, the best way to learn something about your product is to use it. Not in an artificial testing situation or powerpoint presentation, but really use it. Walk a mile in your user's shoes. Literally. Go where they work, and do their work for a day using your product. If you need to explain why you are there to external customers (so the people that are serviced by your customers with the help of your product) you can always just say you are new or an intern. Not only will you better understand your users and product, you might come up with idea how to improve your product that your user's could not think about or formulate properly because they don't know what options exist.(As an example that I always use in those situations, I always thought the interface design of one of our apps was really badly thought out and implemented by a sloppy 5th grader, because it broke every single standard of color and size. Until I actually worked in the warehouse where they wore clumsy, protective gloves in shady lighting conditions and orange lights blinking in the background and instead of pulling of the gloves every time they used the computer, they just kept them on and needed a less sophisticated interface because it's hard to hit a normal button with the mouse when you have protective gloves on. From that point on, that user interface was pure genius in my eyes because it really worked for that situation.)
Design Scheme of High Power LED Lighting Power Supply
Abstract: This paper introduces the solution of 350W high efficiency (> 90%) high power factor (> 0.95) led lighting power supply using PFC controller cm6807 and resonant half bridge controller cm6900. The scheme is suitable for up to 1kW power supply, and can be used for LED lighting, LED street lamps, large LED billboards and high-power sports venues lighting.American "Energy Star" and other specifications require that the off-line LED lighting power supply at any power level has high power factor and high energy efficiency. For the low-power LED driving power supply for general lighting, the single-stage power factor correction (PFC) flyback circuit topology based on special controller IC is the most basic solution. This topology is characterized by the use of only one power switch without the use of high-voltage electrolytic capacitors. For 100 200W LED lighting power supply, PFC flyback two-stage circuit architecture is usually adopted. The characteristic of this topology is that PFC boost converter is placed in the front end of flyback converter, and PFC and flyback converter use a power switch respectively. For high-power LED lighting power supply above 200W, the above two topologies are not applicable. The effective solution is to choose the circuit architecture of PFC combined with its inductance inductance capacitance (LLC). In order to achieve high efficiency, the synchronous rectification scheme can be adopted at the secondary side of the main transformer. This paper introduces a design example of 350W LED lighting power supply using this scheme for readers' reference.1 system technical specifications and basic architecture1.1 technical specifications of 350W LED driving power supply(1) Input specificationAC input voltage: 85 264 VAC;AC maximum input current: 5A;Line power factor PF: 0.95 (230VAC, full load);AC power frequency: 47 63Hz;Efficiency: 92% (230VAC, full load);Operating temperature: 50 ℃;Working environment: closed;Heat dissipation mode: natural cooling without fan.(2) Output specificationOutput voltage uo: 36 40V;Output Current IO: 5 10A;Voltage ripple: ≤ 0.3V;Current ripple: 0.1A;Control mode: constant voltage / constant current.1.2 system composition block diagramThe 350W LED lighting power supply is mainly composed of EMI filter, PFC boost converter based on continuous conduction mode (CCM) power factor controller cm6807, LLC resonant half bridge converter based on cm6900 and synchronous rectifier. Figure 1 is the basic architecture block diagram.2 actual circuitThe 350W LED lighting power supply circuit based on cm6807 and cm6900 is shown in Figure 2. We briefly introduce each unit circuit in the system.2.1 PFC boost converter and auxiliary power supplyThe PFC boost converter and auxiliary power circuit of 350W LED lighting power supply are shown in Figure 2 (a).(1) Input stage circuitThe input stage circuit consists of EMI filter and bridge rectifier. It is shown in Figure 2 (a) In, capacitors C3, C4, C5, C11 C14 and inductive elements T1 and T2 constitute input EMI filter; BR1 is bridge rectifier; fu1 is fuse; RT1 is NTC thermistor. EMI filter is used to limit and attenuate common mode and differential mode noise, and RT1 is used to limit surge current caused by charging large capacitor C7 during system startup.(2) Active PFC boost converterPower factor controller U1 (cm6807), power switch vt2, boost inductor L1, boost diode VD3, input capacitor C9 / C10, output capacitor C7, current sensing resistor R4, etc. form DC / DC active PFC boost converter. PFC level circuit works in continuous mode. Input current is detected through U1 pin ② through R5, R8 and R13. Output DC bus voltage (395v) It is sampled by voltage dividers R7, R10, R12 and R13 and fed to U1 pin FB. Pin ④ of U1 is the output of voltage error amplifier, and C17, C18 and C21 are compensation networks. The current through PFC stage is sensed by R4 and detected by U1 pin ③ through R11 and C20. The drive output on U1 pin ⑨ drives VT1 / VT3 and vt2. The function of PFC boost converter is to generate an AC output at the input of bridge rectifier BR1 The sinusoidal current whose input voltage tends to be in the same phase can meet the harmonic current limit requirements specified in iec61000-3-2 standard, the system power factor is much higher than 0.95, and can output a stable DC voltage of 395v within the AC input voltage range of 85 264v.(3) Starting circuit and bias power supplyR5, R8, R6, R9, vt4, VD4 and C16 constitute the shoulder circuit on U1 pin ⑧. Once U1 is started, PFC enters the operating state, and U1 pin ③ is powered by the bias power supply composed of auxiliary windings between L1 pins ③ and ④, C1 and C2, VD1 and VD2, R15, VZ1, vT5 and C16.
Power Integrations Publishes Reference Designs for High Power LED Lighting Applications
San Jose, California, December 16, 2014 - power integrations, a leader in the field of high efficiency and high reliability LED Driver IC (NASDAQ: powi), today launched a new reference design for LED street lamps, industrial mining lamps and other high-power LED lighting applications. The new reference design rdr-382 introduces a hiperpfs using power integrations ™- 2 PFC controller IC and hiperlcs ™ Constant current, 43 V (rated), 150 W reference power supply designed by integrated LLC power stage IC.The traditional two-stage driver adopts independent PFC stage and LLC stage. When generating constant voltage (CV) output, multiple DC-DC converters are required to convert the output to constant current (CC). In contrast, rdr-382 adopts innovative feedback and control scheme, which enables LLC to provide constant current directly at the output. Therefore, the number of elements is reduced by about one third, the efficiency is improved to more than 93%, and the power supply size is greatly reduced after eliminating the DC-DC converter. In addition, the high rated LLC switching frequency (250 kHz) can reduce the size of the required magnetic core components. At the same time, compared with the fixed frequency scheme, the continuous conduction mode variable frequency PFC level can also reduce EMI interference.Andrew Smith, senior product marketing manager of power integrations, said: "reliability is particularly important for high-power lighting applications with an output power of more than 75 W. because the design is efficient, the heat generated is very small and the number of components is less, so it has a longer service life."About power integrationsPower integrations, Inc. is a supplier of high-performance electronic components for high-voltage power conversion systems, headquartered in Silicon Valley. The company's integrated circuits and diodes can help a large number of electronic products, including televisions, PCs, home appliances, smart meters and LED lamps, design compact and energy-efficient AC-DC power supply. SCALE ™ IGBT Driver system can improve the efficiency, reliability and cost-effectiveness of high-power applications, including industrial motors, solar and wind energy systems, electric vehicles and HVDC transmission. Since its inception in 1998, power integrations ecosmart ™ Energy saving technologies have saved billions of dollars in energy consumption and avoided millions of tons of carbon emissions. Due to the role of the company's products in environmental protection, the shares of power integration have been classified into NASDAQ ® Clean Edge ® Green energy index, the cleantech index ® And ardour global IndexSM.
Explain the Key Points of LED Lighting Driving Power Supply in Detail
In order to save energy and power, LED has been greatly promoted, but led needs a power driver, which will directly affect the service life of LED. Therefore, how to do a good LED driving power supply is the top priority of LED power designer. This paper introduces some problems of LED driving power supply, hoping to provide some help to engineers.1. The driving circuit directly affects the service life of LEDThe LED driver we mentioned includes digital driver and analog driver. Digital driver refers to digital circuit driver, including digital dimming control, RGB full-color change, etc. Analog drive refers to analog circuit drive, including AC constant current switching power supply and DC constant current control circuit. The driving circuit is composed of electronic components, including semiconductor components, resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc. these components have service life. The failure of any device will lead to the failure of the whole circuit or some functions. The service life of LED is 50000-100000 hours. If it is continuously lit according to 50000 hours, it has a service life of nearly 6 years. The service life of switching power supply is difficult to reach 6 years. The warranty period of switching power supply sold on the market is generally 2-3 years. The power supply with 6-year warranty is military grade, and the price is 4-6 times that of ordinary power supply. It is difficult for ordinary lamp manufacturers to accept it. Therefore, the faults of LED lamps are mostly driving circuit faults.2. Heat dissipation problemLED is a cold light source, the working junction temperature cannot exceed the limit, and a certain margin should be reserved during design. The design of the whole lamp should consider many aspects, such as beautiful appearance, convenient installation, light distribution, heat dissipation and so on. It is necessary to find a balance point among many factors, so that the overall lamp is the best. The development time of LED lamps is not long, there is not much experience to learn from, and many designs are constantly improved. The power supply used by some LED lamp manufacturers is outsourced or purchased. The lamp designer does not know much about the power supply, so the heat dissipation space for LED is large and that for power supply is small. It is generally to find a suitable power supply after designing the lamps, which brings some difficulty to the power supply. It is often encountered that due to the small internal space or high internal temperature of the lamp, and the low cost control, it is impossible to allocate a suitable power supply. Some LED lamp manufacturers have power R & D capability. The above problems can be solved by evaluating at the initial stage of designing lamps and designing power supply synchronously. In the design, we should comprehensively consider the heat dissipation of LED and power supply, and control the temperature rise of lamps as a whole, so as to design better lamps.3. Problems in power supply designa. Power design. Although the LED has high luminous efficiency, there is still 80-85% heat loss, resulting in a temperature rise of 20-30 degrees inside the lamp. If the room temperature is 25 degrees, there is 45-55 degrees inside the lamp. The power supply works in a high-temperature environment for a long time. In order to ensure the service life, the power margin must be increased, which is generally reserved to 1.5-2 times.b. Component selection. When the internal temperature of the lamp is 45-55 degrees, the internal temperature rise of the power supply is about 20 degrees, and the temperature near the element should reach 65-75 degrees. The parameters of some components will drift at high temperature, and the service life of some components will be shortened. Therefore, the devices should be selected that can be used at high temperature for a long time, with special attention to electrolytic capacitors and wires.C. Electrical performance design. The parameter design of switching power supply for LED is mainly constant current parameter. The size of current determines the brightness of LED. If the batch current error is large, the brightness of the whole batch of lamps is uneven. Moreover, the change of temperature can also cause the output current of the power supply to shift. Generally, the batch error is controlled within / - 5% to ensure the consistent brightness of the lamp. There is deviation in the forward voltage drop of the LED, and the constant current voltage range of the power supply design should include the voltage range of the LED. When multiple LEDs are connected in series, the minimum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the lower limit voltage, and the maximum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the upper limit voltage. The constant current voltage range of the power supply is slightly wider than this range. Generally, 1-2v margin is reserved for the upper and lower limits.d. PCB layout design. The size of LED lamps left for the power supply is small (unless it is external to the power supply), so there are high requirements in PCB design and many factors to be considered. Enough safety distance shall be reserved for the power supply requiring input and output isolation. The withstand voltage of primary side circuit and secondary side circuit shall be 1500-2000vac, and at least 3mm distance shall be reserved on the PCB. If it is a lamp with metal shell, the safety distance between the high-voltage part and the shell shall also be considered for the cloth plate of the whole power supply. If there is no space to ensure a safe distance, other measures should be taken to ensure insulation, such as drilling holes on PCB, adding insulating paper, potting insulating glue, etc. In addition, the heat balance shall be considered for the cloth plate, and the heating elements shall be evenly distributed and cannot be placed centrally to avoid local temperature rise. The electrolytic capacitor is far away from the heat source to slow down the aging and prolong the service life.e. Certification issues. At present, there is no standard for LED lamps in China. Relevant national departments are studying and formulating. The certification of lamps sold in China is based on the standards of lighting lamps, while those sold abroad are CE or UL certification, and some are based on foreign LED lamp standards. Therefore, in view of this situation, it is difficult for the design of switching power supply to meet the above standards at the same time. We can only meet different certification according to different requirements.4. Use parameters.The selection of purchased power supply mainly depends on the voltage range of constant current and constant current. The constant current value is lower than the standard current of LED. The selection of voltage range shall be moderate, and try not to select a large range to avoid power waste.
Why Are LEDs so Popular? Discussion on Connector of LED Lighting Standard
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have revolutionized indoor and outdoor lighting. This solid-state lighting (SSL) technology has excellent efficiency, controllability, chromatography, thermal performance and unique shape. It is eliminating the ancient Edison incandescent bulbs (as well as fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps or sodium vapor lamps). Now, most new indoor and outdoor designs and upgrading of existing designs will first consider led. However, designers should be careful. At the same time of rapid innovation, there will also be some hidden dangers, such as non-standard connection and end-user solution mismatch, which will cause a negative customer experience.It is not just the light source itself that has been completely changed. For example, LED lighting is also changing the design and shape of connectors and their fixtures (called lamps). These connectors are an essential part of any lighting system. They do not accept AC line voltage, but lower DC voltage. The typical current is usually between 3 A and 7 a. In addition, LED lighting system is usually part of the control network supporting digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) and zhaga industry standard, and provides intelligent, energy-saving and high-performance lighting as a key link of smart home or office.Therefore, before designing LED lighting system, engineers have the responsibility to be familiar with these standards and their reflection in real-world connectors, because new designs are rising rapidly.This paper briefly reviews why LEDs are so popular, and then introduces and describes these two connection standards to ensure interoperability, rapid development and easy deployment of intelligent LED design. Finally, the connectors of Amphenol ICC are introduced, and as the practical embodiment of relevant standards and their applications, the application of these connectors is summarized.Why are LEDs so popularThere are many factors promoting the development of led into lighting source:Cost reduction promotes the increase of output, which further promotes the reduction of cost and the increase of outputBasic reliability and life enhancement of LED as light sourceThe improvement of the circuit is mainly the improvement of the power supply driving these LEDsImprovement of optical output quality characterized by color temperature (Kelvin) and color rendering index (CRI)Incentives, standards and enforcement measures taken by the government to improve lighting efficiency to save energy (it is estimated that lighting accounts for 15% to 20% of total energy consumption)Development of industry and government standards that ensure interoperability between LED light sources and compatibility with intelligent controllers.The last point is particularly important. An important size category of traditional incandescent bulbs is the "E26" 26 mm (mm) diameter Edison screw bulb, which is almost commonly used in residential environments in the United States and many other countries (Figure 1). It is being replaced by LED and fluorescent bulbs, but to a lesser extent. Of course, there are other sizes, such as E12 base, but E26 is the most widely used at present.Of course, standardizing to a single base and socket can reduce costs. The same technology has also led to a variety of bulb shapes, power levels and other attributes built around this foundation, while reducing concerns about long-term replacement of burned bulbs. Early generations of LED bulbs used E26 base to be compatible with existing sockets, making users accustomed to LED lighting. These E26 LED bulbs are still widely sold because there are countless such sockets in use, so the replacement process will take a long time.However, compared with incandescent lamps, LEDs are very different in current, voltage (DC) and power consumption. Incandescent bulbs usually use 120 / 240 V AC power supply. In addition, the wire of E26 socket often has relatively large threaded terminals, which is not ideal for LED light source power supply (Fig. 2). Therefore, new standards and connector types are needed in order for LEDs to give full play to their potential from the system level to the physical connection level.Recognizing the needs of modern lighting interface standards, the Digital Lighting Interface Alliance (diia) developed the Dali standard.The Dali standard redefines lighting connectionsDali is a special protocol for digital lighting control, which can easily realize firm, scalable and flexible lighting network installation (Figure 3). The first version dali-1 is more suitable for digital control, configuration and query of fluorescent lamp ballasts, and less led factors are considered. It replaces the simple, unidirectional and broadcast operation of the existing 0 / 1 to 10 volt analog control mode.The standard also includes a broadcast option. Through simple reconfiguration, each Dali device can be assigned a separate address, allowing digital control of a single device. In addition, Dali devices can also be programmed for grouping operation, so that the lighting system can be reconfigured through software to avoid changing wiring.With the growth of user expectations and the improvement of LED technology, the development of dali-2 standard is promoted. Dali-2 is not only an industry standard, but also a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62386). Dali-2 adds many new commands and functions. Dali-1 only includes control mode, while dali-2 covers control devices, such as application controllers and input devices (such as sensors), as well as bus power supply. It focuses on the interoperability of products from different manufacturers, and is supported by dali-2 certification plan to confirm the compatibility between products and specifications (Figure 4).Like all comprehensive standards, dali-2 is complex. In short, with a single line pair as the bus, each device on the Dali network can be addressed separately. The bus is used to provide both signals and power. The supported power supply can provide up to 250 Ma at 16 V DC (typical). This standard supports equipment powered by AC lines or DC power rails.Although various standards define ultra-low voltage (ELV), IEC defines ELV equipment or circuit as: the potential difference between electrical conductor and grounding does not exceed AC 50V or DC 120V. Dali control cable is classified as ELV equipment, so it only needs to be basically insulated from AC mains power; It can be routed together with mains lines or multi-core cables including mains lines.Beyond dali-2: zhaga specification, aiming at lampsDali-2 and other standards are important, but they can only stop there. It is not within the scope of its definition to define how to link standards to specific applications, such as LED lighting and lamps. In order to solve this problem, the international zhaga alliance has formulated the interface industry specification of components used in LED lamps. The alliance is a member project of IEEE industry standards and technology organization. As of 2019, it has more than 120 members.It's time to find out the difference between lighting equipment and lamps. The term "luminaire" is used in the lighting Engineering Society (ies) lighting manual, ANSI / NEMA standards and IEC. It was added to the National Electrical Code (NEC) manual in 2002 and is officially defined as "a complete lighting unit consisting of one or more lamps and components designed to distribute light, locate and protect the lamp tube and connect the lamp tube to the power supply". Lamps include lamps and all parts directly related to the distribution, positioning and protection of lighting devices, excluding supporting parts, such as arms, ribs or rods; Fasteners for fixing lamps; Control or safety devices; Or power lead. Lamps have a variety of forms and are suitable for various occasions, from outdoor street lighting with strict functions to indoor office lighting, and even "fashionable" retail or home lighting."Lighting equipment" is not defined in NEC and generally refers to anything in the mind of the user, which may include some or all of the following elements: lamp tube (bulb), perhaps with lampshade, lamp ball, lens or diffuser, support, lamp pole or lamp accessories, and other elements.The official name of the zhaga specification is books (specification), which aims at electrical, mechanical, optical, thermal and communication interfaces and allows the interoperability of components. By following the zhaga specification, designers can ensure that users have interoperable, replaceable or repairable components, and that led lamps can be upgraded when new technologies appear after installation.Zhaga Book 18 and book 20 are particularly useful for designers who use LED lamps; The former focuses on outdoor design, while the latter is for indoor applications.Zhaga Book 18: "intelligent interface between outdoor lamps and sensing / communication modules" specifies the contents of power supply and communication. In addition, it also specifies the mechanical coordination and electrical pins of the connection system defined in version 1.0. It simplifies the addition of application modules, such as adding sensors and communication nodes to LED lamps, and ensures plug and play interoperability.Zhaga book 20: "intelligent interface between indoor lamps and sensing / communication modules" defines the intelligent interface between indoor LED lamps and sensing / communication nodes. The node is connected to the LED driver and control system, and can usually provide sensor input or realize communication between network components. Nodes can be installed and replaced on site.epilogueLED lighting has greatly changed the indoor and outdoor lighting of industry, commerce and residence. It combines energy efficiency, long life and flexibility of lamp configuration almost perfectly.Editing: hfy
New Location, Cause for Hemp & Co.
The space is newer and greener and Hemp & Company has decided to use its new Government Street digs as a launch pad for a new environmental award.The 15-year-old Victoria retailer, which works to expand awareness of organic and eco-friendly clothing, nutrition and bodycare, has launched the Eco-Hero contest in order to shine a light on entrepreneurs, volunteers and community leaders who make a positive mark on the environmental landscape."We wanted to recognize people who are involved in environmental issues and we thought what would be a good way to support them and get the community thinking," said Bill Finley, who runs Hemp & Company with wife Lorna Knowles. The company will be taking nominations until Nov. 23 for individuals and then the community will be able to vote for their favourite between Dec. 1 and Jan. 31. The winner will be announced Feb. 5 and will win an "awardrobe" of Hemp & Company gear."There are not many initiatives likes this, that award eco-heroes," said Jill Doucette, founder of Synergy Enterprises, a firm that works with companies to improve their green practices and worked with Hemp & Company to develop the award idea.Doucette said the contest will mean environmental leaders are profiled in the community and lauded for what they do, whether it be land conservation, developing innovative technology or rallying the community behind a cause."Hemp & Company loved the idea of connecting with environmentalists that share their vision," she said.Finley said that environmental bent is a huge driver behind the store, now open at 1312 Government St., two blocks from the old location at the corner of Government and Fort streets."I'm an environmentalist more than anything else. I've been on the protests and hugged the trees and all that and it's all well and good, but I always felt a little unsettled as it wasn't proactive," he said. "This business came along through my son [Mike Finley] and it felt like a business where you could do something and hopefully make a difference in the world." The new store makes a difference as well. It is smaller than the last locations. It has 1,300 square feet of retail space and includes a number of features that "green" the place up.The work and lease-hold improvements on the space within the newly renovated New England Hotel, an 1865 building, led to the company recording the highest score for a retail business on the Island from the Vancouver Island Green Business Certification program."When I completed the assessment at Hemp & Company, I was truly impressed," said VIGBC program manager Craig Sorochan. "They have integrated sustainability into everything from their light fixtures and flooring to the products on their shelves." Finley said most of the initiatives had been done in the old store as well - a heavy-duty recycling program, no plastic bags and the like. But the new store also includes wood reclaimed from an old aircraft hangar in Comox used for flooring, recycled lighting fixtures, LED lighting and a heat pump for heating and air conditioning."We thought of all the things we could and did whatever we could within the fine budget we had to create a space that was as green as the products we are selling," he said.Doucette said the company has been a "long-standing pioneer of environmental initiatives and products. They have always been on that cutting edge of the next environmental solutions and very supportive of local business."
LED Lighting Is the Prime Choice of Interior Decorators
The growth of technology and necessity of better light sources gave us LED lights. The sources have evolved from the traditional incandescent or fluorescent lights to LED. Compared to incandescent lights, LED lights have the lighting consume 60% less energy and provide similar brightness. The architects and interiors designers are now having much better options with LED under interior lighting. They can now experiment a lot of new looks because the LED flexible strip can be operated on ultra narrow platforms. The LED strip lights can be installed anywhere without much of a trouble and produces warm or pure white light. They are extremely low profile and highly flexible to be bent in any degree. The LED lighting can be installed in many ways with the help of fixtures and give a much better glowing effect in the surroundings.The LED lights are widely used to enhance the look of the home or office. It is luxury form of LED interior lighting because they give a whole new outlook to the space where it is installed. The contractors and architects today use variations in the lighting to give attractive look. It is available in vivid colors; hence they can be used to suit the mood better according to the environment and color theme of the surroundings. They also give the facility to be modulated; hence the brightness can be controlled. This complements the area which is illuminated and hence has gone a step ahead as compared to xenon or incandescent lighting. The interior decorators always use new & better options to decorate the home, office or hotels. Be it a book shelf, garden patio, kitchen cabinets or ceilings, LED has become their prime choice because of brilliant color combination, less heat generation and low consumption. The LED flexible strip lighting can be accommodated anywhere without much of an effort.The LED interior lighting has become the first choice for many to highlight other sophisticated furniture. The dug in LED under cabinet lights are placed directly into the cabinet or shelf making them non noticeable. The LEDs are primarily installed in living room area for maintaining more artistic interiors. The LED lights can be installed in process hence the area should be chosen extremely wisely during installation. LED lights are also available in flexible strip and aluminium tube format that can be used in interiors for highlighting purposes. These LED aluminium tube lights operate on a remarkably less power. The LED tube lighting offers a variety of colors and can have their brightness modulated with dimmer as required. LED lighting can be used in extremely narrow spaces and still give the required luminance. The lights come as a bar or disk and can be chosen according to the requirement and the space available. The decorators also utilize the accent lighting to enhance the look and highlight the counter tops with LED lights. The LED lighting is also used as jewellery display lights because of their flicker free nature and no maintenance.Tired of traditional lamps that do not provide you eco-friendly lights, and consume so much energy as well? We at Bigeagle.com.au offer you LED lights that have ideal energy conservation with eco friendly solutions. We are the experienced expert for providing super bright LED lighting fixtures for interior design lighting applications. We aim to improve the quality of your home or business illuminations by installing high brightness led interior lighting. Find out more about LED interior lighting from at Bigeagle. com. au, where we offer valuable advises and tips for eco-friendly, energy efficient LED lighting productsWho does YOUR interior decorating?The pack of dust bunnies that live under my furnitureDoes anybody know of any great Interior decorating websites with pictures of painted rooms?a great one the best, I forgot how to spell it has 4 letters starting with b it advertises on tv, sorry best I can doDo your kids' rooms look like those in magazines and interior decorating books?As long as you and your kids are happy with the results, thats what matters. My kids room probably do look like they could be in an interior decor magazine. I enjoy decorating (its a hobby, not a profession) and I particularly enjoyed decorating my kids rooms. I let them have some input (my daugther just wanted lots of pink, my sons wanted superhero theme) and then I just went from there. I find its the accessories and window treatments that really pull a room together. Anyways, like I said, its a hobby for me, I look at a lot of catalogues and magazines and copy looks I like. As long as everyone is happy with teh room though, that is what matters.
Light Quality Is Critical to Strengthen Adoption of LED Lighting-Made-in-China.com
To provide a more balanced portfolio of ENERGY STAR lamp products on the market and mitigate color quality as a barrier to wider adoption of energy efficient lighting products, Soraa proposed to the EPA a second high CRI tier with differential efficacy requirements taking into account the inherent lumen per watt trade-off as a function of CRI for phosphor converted white LEDs. Soraa proposed to keep the existing minimum efficacy requirements, but raise the color quality to a minimum CRI 90. For lamps with CRI between 80 and 90, Soraa proposes to increase the luminous efficacy requirements.Poll: Last time you cried ?I am crying as I type thisHave you ever cried because of a song?weirdly yes haha Hurt- Christina Aguilara the music video made me cry hysterically >What movies have you cried during?I am a guy and straight so yah my tears do not fall as easily. A League of Their own when the younger sister Kit wins and is being cheered by the crowd while dottie and to coach look on. This movie just got to me. Maybe it was the "theres no crying in baseball" line that got me going :PPOLL: Have you ever cried?LOL yeah. I cried so much I had this huge headache and then was like *cries* Why the hell am I even crying?! *cries*I cried on my first date ever!?Show your bad side (I would not say cry at the first date bad) if he still wanna be with you. Then he really wants to. Me and my met a month after i broke up with my ex. I told him everything happened between me and my ex and i was crying like a piece of **** but the best things is he still wanna be with me and promise me he wont dont the same as my ex did to me.POLL: Last time you cried?Earlier BQ: Frustrating lifeI cried while praying, is that normal?Dat's da holy spirit babby!why is there a difference if a guy cries and a girl cries?A bloke supposed to be tougher, not girlish cries, I think. I am totally agree with you over girls cries while guys do not know what to do but girls do. They offered me to hugs over their shoulder. Guess my knowledge is not help you, sorry!Who is Better Cris Angel or David Blaine?I'am watching that crap now!!!!!!Have you ever cried over the death of a pet?When I was young over a goldfish - ok, but it was about 14 years old4 month old cries all day long?If she has been on two strong acid-reducing medications and did not show improvement, then it is not likely a reflux issue. Start with the basics: is she getting enough sleep? At four months she should be sleeping about 16 hours total, between night sleep and probably three nap periods. She may not have a consistent schedule yet and that is fine, but sleep is critical for development and for temperament to even out. Babies who are not getting adequate sleep are cranky and moody, easily frustrated, and will often cry like they are in pain. Being tired is associated with headaches and stomach upsets, just like in adults. Being on four different formulas in three months can be difficult too. Her body needs to adjust every time you switch. It is possible she is sensitive to the milk-base of the formula, but the Alimentum should have resolved it if that were the case, or the Prosobee. She can also be sensitive to soy as allergies to soy are quite common, and it is possible that she is so sensitive to milk that the hydrolyzed protein was still intolerable. You can always get another opinion from another doctor if you do not feel like the situation is being addressed.Baby fusses/cries to get to sleep?Try babies magic tea when your baby is fussing and it will soothe baby from any abnormality in her tummy*cries* i need your help.. :?Shut the hell up, loser. No one gives a damn about your fake problems. I hope you have a lonely, miserable life.
RDECOM Soldier Center's Bright Idea for Lighting System Improves Illumination, Saves Energy
NATICK, Mass. -- The Research, Development and Engineering Command Soldier Center's Expeditionary Maneuver Support Directorate, or EMSD, has developed a new lighting technology that provides better illumination while using less energy than fluorescent tube lighting. Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Southern Cross Printed Electronics, Australia, and its U.S. representative BAM International, EMSD developed the Flexible Light Emitting Diode, or LED, Lighting System, which is also called MFLEX. The MFLEX system is part of EMSD's ongoing commitment to improving energy efficiency and reducing the logistical footprint of expeditionary base camps. "Although there are several alternative LED lighting solutions available to the warfighter, all of which provide the benefit of saving energy, which ultimately translates into fewer or smaller supply convoys, the major benefits of these lights are reflected in three measures: 1) the amount of time necessary to setup and takedown a tent, 2) the transportation weight and volume, and 3) the quality of the lighting," said Melvin Jee, leader of the Soldier Center's EMSD's Expeditionary Command Platforms Branch. The Flexible LED Lighting System will replace the fluorescent tube lighting commonly used in the field. The system can be used in virtually any size tent, provides more illumination, and greatly reduces shadow area when compared to fluorescent tube lighting. "The flexible LED lights provide fairly even illumination, virtually eliminating heavy shadow areas, making the environment more comfortable for the warfighter by reducing fatigue due to eye strain," said Jee. By improving illumination and reducing the presence of shadows inside the tent, the system helps facilitate command and control functions. Soldiers often carry out various aspects of mission planning while in tents, including looking at maps and other information, and the improved illumination and reduction of shadows may help them better perform such tasks. Moreover, the system is more compact and weighs significantly less than fluorescent tube lighting. The Flexible LED Lighting System fits into a backpack-sized bag. This one small bag replaces up to four transit cases needed to light a single tent with fluorescent lighting. The cases weigh between 40 to 50 pounds each, compared with the backpack-sized bag needed for LED lighting, which weighs only 10 pounds. The backpack-size bag contains 12 meters of flexible LED lighting, complete with cables and hangers. The bag also contains the power supply and control circuitry, which allows the lights to be dimmed and/or switched from white light to blue/green blackout light. Warfighters do not require a specific Military Occupational Specialty, or MOS, to install and operate the lighting system. The LED system does not have to be taken down when moving to a new location, increasing ease of mobility and reducing setup and tear-down times. The system is being used by the 82nd Airborne Division. The Soldier Center has partnered extensively with the 82nd Airborne to gain insights into improving and developing appropriate tools, techniques, products and technologies for the warfighter. The division's feedback/input helped to shape the development of the Flexible Light Emitting Diode Lighting System. The U.S. Army Soldier Center is part of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, which has the mission to provide innovative research, development and engineering to produce capabilities that provide decisive overmatch to the Army against the complexities of the current and future operating environments in support of the joint warfighter and the nation. RDECOM is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command.1. Cost vs Power: Checking out Some LED Lighting SolutionsEver wondered about the size of a salt grain? A single salt grain measures about three mil, which is a thousandth of an inch. Now, imagine a third of that size, placed on a printed circuit board (PCB). That is the size of the smallest LED available today. People do not regularly go for it, but it is heartening to know that something that small can also brighten something up. That is where the surface-mount device light-emitting diode (SMD LED) module comes into the picture. Now, you have a 0.65mm0.35mm0.2mm-size LED on a PCB that can be used for a range of different purposes. Wide viewing angles of about 145 and low power consumption add to the charm. An SMD chip is created from layers of man-made nano-sapphire and gallium crystal substrates. After growing these crystals, these are sliced, layered and bonded to a ceramic base. The chip can be then mounted in the required application. Applications of an SMD include everything from light bulbs to strip lights. One interesting use case would be the indicators on mobile phones. Over the years, SMD LED has continued to improve its luminescence in accordance with Haitz law. If a chip includes red, green and blue diodes, you have the possibility of creating any colour you want. This has resulted in SMDs becoming the prime choice for DC power applications, mostly due to the ease of use. A COB LED has great advantages of thermal resistance, larger cooling area, better lighting effect and high light efficacy. It is basically an LED built directly on the circuit board. P. Chow Reddy, managing director, Interleaved Technologies, explains, "A COB contains multiple chips within one large wafer. This allows a larger light output and a more even spread of light." It allows connection of the bare chip to the substrate by conductive or non-conductive adhesive and wire bonding to achieve its electrical connection. Due to fewer components in the LED chip, thermal conductivity is directed at the circuit board and without the traditional LED chip packaging structure. Heat emissions from LED chips are on average 25 per cent lower as compared to conventional LEDs, resulting in high efficiency and lower failure rates. And since the chip is built directly onto the circuit board, it reduces the need for spot soldering. After all, fewer soldering points mean less chances of failure. Need for traditional LED packaging parts and PC lenses has also reduced, resulting in an increase in light visibility range and a decrease in light loss from lenses. COB LEDs are generally larger than SMDs and range from a few millimetres to a few centimetres-square. At this small size, soldering these to the board becomes a problem. COBs are easier to place on a board. The pins in SMD require precision soldering An evolution over the conventional COB is the multi-chip-on-board (MCOB), for when one is not enough. It consists of multiple chips integrated into one larger single board. Assembly is cheaper compared to multiple single chips, making these suitable for applications in streetlights and high-bay lights. However, there is still some time before these can be used in smaller applications. Sharp Devices, Europe, recently announced a range of high-performance mini and mega zenigata COB LEDs with greater efficiency and enhanced hot lumen performance. HD6 mini zenigata are 12mm15mm with an 8mm light-emitting surface with 2500 lumens. BF6 series mega zenigata are sized at 20mm24mm substrate with 15mm light-emitting surface. Recently released are another two new blue LED chips from Light Avenue in 12V and 24V. Both solutions are sized at 140 mil to increase implementation in tracklights or high-bay lighting. Small-sized chips are clustered and packaged into a light bulb that is advertised as 'lighting always' or 'save power now.' Some LED manufacturers are able to reach 249 lumens per watt with a 20mA supply. However, this is not the story with bigger sizes. Light efficiency follows an inverse relation with chip size. Additionally, with an increase in current to the LED, efficiency is further reduced. One of the best things with the use of SMD and COB LEDs is that now you can get a much better looking LED display without having to pay as much for it-this brings in the matter of dual-in-line package (DIP) LEDs going out of fashion. DIPs have been around for more than 50 years, and are likely what you think of when you picture an LED. Though easy to use, these are much less efficient over other available options, and hence the reduced usage.2. Controlling light colour with DALIWhen planning lighting control with DALI, the focus nowadays is often on the pure function. Within HCL (Human Centric Lighting) there is frequently a demand for control of the colour temperature of accent lighting with saturated light colours. During the planning phase the user should always bear simple maintenance of the lighting installation in mind. It saves time and money if you can make adjustments yourself. But to do this you need expert knowledge. DALI is the standardized lighting interface in IEC 62386. Compatible devices are low in price, robust and easily available. There are stand-alone DALI lighting controls and numerous Gateway solutions in nearly all relevant building automation systems. For this reason DALI is aways a point of discussion in nearly every planning project for large functional buildings. However, even in the residential sector DALI is being used more and more, since, precisely when it comes to LED lighting, the function is guaranteed by being integrated directly in the DALI luminaires. There is no longer any need for complex compatible combinations of LED power supply, LED dimmer and LED module. The relevant functions are already integrated into the control gear. The strength of DALI becomes especially appparent with colour-variable luminaire combinations. DALI control gears are classified as standard in different types of device. LED control gears and luminaires are assigned to device type 6. Device type 8 is for colour-controllable luminaires. Colour control is standardized in DALI, which is especially important when colour control should span devices from different manufacturers to ensure that all the luminaires emit the correct light colour in the required intensity. It is possible to control in the brightness of luminaires in different ways using broadcast control or group and scene control. DALI operates according to the Master/Slave principle. The master can be a simple broadcast control device, such as the rotary control knob which can make a luminaire brighter or darker. The Master can however also represent complex lighting control. This might consist of many elements which communicate with each other in a superordinated network. If one DALI device fails, all project data previously saved, such as group membership, fading times or scene values have to be restored. In broadcast control all the luminaires which are physically connected to each other are triggered simultaneously with direct brightness values. In the DALI standard a broadcast address is set by default. All DALI luminaires obey commands which are broadcast-addressed, whatever address they themselves possess. Thus, it is not necessary to address and configure the luminaires. Faulty control gears can be replaced easily by new ones. In group and scene control the group allocation and the light scene values are stored in the control gear. The same is true for further parameters. Then the luminaires have to be addressed. When commissioning this is very complex because the luminaires must first be identified and then configured. As a rule, configuration of a DALI line is performed by the Master via PC software according to the principle of random address allocation. For DALI colour control with the conventional DT0 (fluorescent lamp) or DT6 (LED) a DALI address is required for each. The DALI luminaires have to addressed and grouped. The colour is defined via value control via several DALI addresses. When such a lighting solution is dimmed, the colour information is lost and commissioning is very time-consuming.3. How can I mount an 12V transformer for LED lighting inside a wall?You can not apply the low-voltage rules to transformers. Because half of the transformer is not low voltage, it is mains voltage. Anyway, you are talking about LED drivers or power supplies, not transformers. (a transformer is a real thing, it is a different thing.) Also, remember, the easy Class II rules for low voltage circuits do not apply if the circuit is over 55 watts
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