Why Was the Ottoman Empire Referred to As "the Sick Old Man of Europe?

The Ottoman Empire was on the decline because it was increasingly falling under the financial control of the European powers and had lost territory in a series of disastrous wars

1. Did the Ottoman Turks really kill all the Christians seeking shelter at the Hagia Sophia upon the fall of Constantinople and converted the cathedral into a mosque by force even though Islam forbids this act?

Yes. When Constantinople fell, Sultan Mehmet II allowed his troops to pillage the city. Because Hagia Sophia was not a mosque, troops were also allowed to plunder the Cathedral.Many women and children had taken refuge inside of the Cathedral, because they were not able to fight or defend the city with the men. The Turks used a battering ram to break open the doors, once inside, they looted the artifacts, and killed the women and children.Hagia Sophia was at the time the most impressive structure on earth, so naturally, Turks converted it into a mosque.In 1935 however, Western powers had convinced Ataturk to revoke its status as a mosque and convert the Cathedral into a Museum. They did so, and in the 1990's The New York based World Monuments Foundation secured a grant to restore the Cathedral, more toward its previous form

2. During ottoman period, greek and turkish genes have been mixed in many families. That's why we look alike ?

Yup!! and Africa invaded Italy and the Spanish invaded everyone, so to your question, we are all of different mixtures

3. Does anyone think the Ottoman Empire will rise again and unite with other Middle Eastern nations to drive Israel out?

No, because...The Ottoman Empire is dead and is not coming back any time soon. Turkey has too many problems of its own to deal with and, despite Erdogan's bluster, is not going to waste money and resources fighting an increasingly well-connected nuclear-armed state.Other Middle Eastern nations, particularly Gulf states, are warming up to Israel. Bahrain acknowledged its right to exist just yesterday, in fact

4. Were texts in the old Ottoman Turkish translated into the new alphabet or were they "lost"?

There is a big misconception about Ottoman Turkish. I am a person who can read -so called- Ottoman Turkish. I knew how to read Arabic letters and I wanted to check if I can read Ottoman Turkish or not. Ottoman Turkish has some additional letters to Arabic letters -for sounds like p, ch, sh, ngh etc.) I checked these online and started reading Ottoman Turkish booklets which I found out on the internet. It would take some time to understand at the beginning but after reading regularly every day around 15 minutes, I can read a detective story which was printed in 1905 in Ottoman Turkish. I have read 80 pages of this novel -which was translated from English to Ottoman Turkish- and I had to check the vocabulary only for around 10 times. Therefore, you do not need translation of each and every book, as long as you can read the alphabet, you can understand.Misconception is there because some people are looking at old literary works, government related official documents and these are really hard to understand. It is even today, it is hard to understand some legal and official documents. As summary,There are archives. Most of the government related documents are kept in archives which is called Ottoman Archives in Istanbul. Katalog TaramaOther documents like books, newspapers in Ottoman Turkish are kept in other libraries, there is Milli Kutuphane (National Library of Turkey) and another source is Istanbul Municipality's Ataturk Library. Here's the link to Ataturk Library which has online access (you can download the books to your computer as pdf, not only books but other documents like photos etc. as well) YordamBT s.13.7 Ankara Universitesi's online catalogue is good place to download various newspapers as well in Ottoman Turkish Ankara niversitesi Gazeteler VeritabanOld alphabet is not used in Turkey any more except some calligraphy and other art forms. Many of hand written books and precious books were lost as Ottoman Empire was invaded by British and French (Istanbul) after World War I. There are records that these soldiers who did not know the value of these books used to warm themselves or as toilet papers. Whatever is not lost, is in archives & libraries mostly

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