Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Industrial Furniture
1. What are some careers in visual arts?Visual Arts Career Guide 3-D Renderer - Designer Advertising Account Executive Advertising Careers Animator Apparel Design Major Architects Art Art and Design Workers Art Career Paths Art Careers Art Careers Art Directors Art Historians Art History Art History Art History Careers Art Librarian Arts Managers Art Teachers Art Teachers Art Therapist Art Therapist Artisans and Craftspeople Artist Career Profile Artist-Scientest Portrait Artists and Related Workers Arts Administrator Arts and Communications Careers Arts and Humanities Careers Arts Career Cluster Arts and Entertainment Careers Arts, Design and Crafts Broadcast Media Careers Cake Decorators Careers in Arts for People with Disabilities Careers in the Arts Cartoonist Cartoonist Comic Book Artist Commercial and Industrial Designers Commercial Artists Commercial Artist Computer and ICT Careers Costume Designer Costume Designer Craft Artist Craft Artist Craftpersons Creative Designer Arts Design Careers Graphic Designers Drafters Drafting Technicians Entrepreneur - Start Your Own Business Exhibit Designers Exhibition Designer Fashion and Textile Design Fashion Designer Fashion Merchandising Fine Artist Fine Artists Floral Designer Footwear Designer Furniture Designer Glass Blowers Graphic Design Careers Graphic Designers and Illustrators Illustrator Illustrator's Career Guidance Industrial Design Careers Industrial Designers Industrial Designers Industrial Designer Interactive Media Careers Interior Design Career Interior Designer Jeweler Jewelry Crafter Landscaping Careers Makeup Artist Medical Illustrators Medical Illustrator My Heroes - Artists Multimedia Artists Museum Curator Museum Officer Museum Technicians Ornamental Blacksmith Painters and Illustrators Painter and Sculptor Painters and Illustrators Painting Related Careers Patternmakers Performing Arts Careers Photographic Retouchers Photography and Film Careers Picture Framer Potter Potter Ceramist Print Finishing Artist Printing Careers Public Relations Specialist Screen Printer Sculptors Set and Exhibit Designers Set Designers Signmaker Sketch Artist Stone Cutters and Carvers Storyboard Artist Studio Art Studio Art Careers Tattoo Designer Theater Exhibit Designers Toy Designer Visual Artists Web Designers and New Media------2. what is art nuvo?Art Nouveau, 1890-1914, explores a new style in the visual arts and architecture that developed in Europe and North America at the end of the nineteenth century. The exhibition is divided into three sections: the first focuses on the 1900 World's Fair in Paris, where Art Nouveau was established as the first new decorative style of the twentieth century; the second examines the sources that influenced the style; and the third looks at its development and fruition in major cities in Europe and North America. At its height exactly one hundred years ago, Art Nouveau was a concerted attempt to create an international style based on decoration. It was developed by a brilliant and energetic generation of artists and designers, who sought to fashion an art form appropriate to the modern age. During this extraordinary time, urban life as we now understand it was established. Old customs, habits, and artistic styles sat alongside new, combining a wide range of contradictory images and ideas. Many artists, designers, and architects were excited by new technologies and lifestyles, while others retreated into the past, embracing the spirit world, fantasy, and myth. Art Nouveau was in many ways a response to the Industrial Revolution. Some artists welcomed technological progress and embraced the aesthetic possibilities of new materials such as cast iron. Others deplored the shoddiness of mass-produced machine-made goods and aimed to elevate the decorative arts to the level of fine art by applying the highest standards of craftsmanship and design to everyday objects. Art Nouveau designers also believed that all the arts should work in harmony to create a "total work of art," or Gesamtkunstwerk: buildings, furniture, textiles, clothes, and jewelry all conformed to the principles of Art Nouveau------3. what is the role of technology?The word technology is defined as the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science. Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. The French sociologist Jacques Ellul has defined la technique as the totality of all rational methods in every field of human activity, so that, for example, education, law, sports, propaganda, and the social sciences are all technologies in that sense. At the other end of the scale, common parlance limits the terms meaning to specific industrial arts. The terms science and technology are often confounded. The confusion arises because so much of contemporary technology is based on the natural sciences such disciplines as physics, chemistry, biology, and other branches of knowledge that deal with the study, measurement, and understanding of natural phenomena. The achievements of the electronics, pharmaceutical, and plastics industries are based on a huge body of scientific investigation. In simplest terms, the concern of science is why, and of technology, how. The relationship between the two is actually much more complex, however, and varies from industry to industry: some technologies are science intensive, whereas the manufacture of such items as cigarettes or furniture depends much less on science. In fact, much of modern technology developed without any scientific input whatever, and there are many examples of entire sciences arising from earlier technologies or developing in an effort to explain findings made by scientifically nave artisans. For example, gunnery led to ballistics; the steam engine, to thermodynamics; powered flight, to aerodynamics; primitive metalworking, to metallurgy; and communications, to radio astronomy. - Charles Susskind------4. how can deforestation cause flooding and climate change?Deforestation can cause flooding (or be an attributable factor) as trees intercept rainfall and absorb infiltrated water (lower groundwater tables). Therefore trees can reduce runoff and groundwater flows. If the land that is deforested is developed with impervious surfaces (such as roads) then the land's runoff and rate of runoff can greatly be increased too. Thus water that naturally would have infiltrated into the land instead now is directed to a central water source in minutes (when naturally may have taken hours, days or weeks). Water sensitive urban designs are being implemented now to avoid (or minimise) the risk of this within new developments. Flooding can be caused by the saturation of the soil (that is the groundwater table rises to the surface and then flooding starts to occur as the land can no longer infiltrate water). Trees are deep rooted and can assist in lowering water tables (e.g. in Western Australia forests were thinned to increase the runoff and groundwater flows into water reservoirs). Flooding can also be caused by increased runoff to waterways, and again deforestation may increase the volume and rate of water entering these waterways. In regards to global warming (climate change) trees (especially large forests) are natural carbon sinks (i.e. absorb carbon emissions). The loss of forests reduces the area of the carbon sinks, therefore with less absorption of carbon emissions more are within the atmosphere, thus exacerbating global warming. Also because trees store carbon in their woody tissue when deforestation occurs this carbon is typically released (unless the timber is turned into long-term products such as furniture, construction beams etc.). When deforestation occurs typically a burn is undertaken too (this releases further carbon). Lasted the land is typically turned into a carbon source (ag land, residential, industrial etc) so this leads to the land having a complete reverse from being a sink to be a source.------5. What are the main economic factors affecting Industry in the Czech republic for the last four years?Czech Republic has one of the largest industrial park in Europe and one the largest share of the industry toward entire GDP. This was already the case in the 19th century and survived the upheavals of the 20th century. During the past 20 years, industry went through deep structural changes, which decimated traditional textile, shoe, pulp, and furniture industry as the competition from China and East Asia increased. Secondary environment was always an issue, which was reason why heavy industry went to significant restructuring, especially chemical, iron, and energy production. Traditional machinery, car, electronic, polymer, plastic, glass industry modernized and expanded. Czech Republic together with Slovakia became primarily oriented on car production and car components. It produces about 20% of all European car parts, from engines to cables, components, and car electronics. This heavy dependency on the car industry is blessing and curse. Car industry generates the largest share of the economy and is a main export and employer. The main export markets are in Europe, both in Eurozone, and Eastern Europe. However, as the financial and economic crisis hit Europe, so the slowdown from the Western Europe affected Czech Republic and its export industry. Since 2012, the country is in recession, where domestic demand is weak, export stagnates, and capital investment disappeared. Banking and financial sector is relatively healthy in Czech Republic, but country suffers with low productivity and chronic budget deficits. Since last year, economic crisis from southern Europe is affecting more countries, and Czech Republic feels the effect. Traditional markets like Hungary, Italy, Slovenia, and Romania are in deep recession, which is decimating export. Secondary, the capital outflow from the region since 2008 affects the investment, which further causes the lagging of the productivity behind the wealthiest countries in the world------6. how did people oppose/react to the invention of spinning jenny and watt steam engine?Most people saw the introduction of the spinning jenny with great awe as it created much more yarn than that produced by hand. However, James Hargreaves made an 8 spindle jenny , which could replace up to 8 people. When Hargreavesbuilt spinning jennys for Robert Peel, grand father of the Prime Minister, workers attacked Hargreaves home in 1768 and destroyed not only the machines but also furniture and windows. this forced Hargreaves to move away too Nottingham to continue to build new jennys. To make matters worse for Hargreaves, when he applied for a patent, other people were claiming it as theirs and Hargreaves had difficulties collecting royalties. By 1785, a new era of weaving began and the Industrial Revolution was underway, with industries moving from the home to large manufactories. The advent of the steam engine was not from Watts, but he certainly improved upon the Newcomen engine he had been working on. Watt had been developing his engines but it was not until 1775 that his first engine worked to his satisfaction. Watt however restricted further development of his engines and it was not until the expiration of his patents in 1802 that Trevithicks engine was developed and it was capable of being developed for transport use. Watt had developed his steam engine for industrial use in factories and mines, but Richard Trevithicks steam engine was small and powerful enough to be used for steam powered transport. This led to the development of the iron horse, the train, but led to reductions in use of real horses and their associated industries. Industries such as strappers, leather merchants, farriers and groomers etc. People liked the idea of the speed of rail transport and it led to an increase in heavy industry like steelworks to build railways, locomotives and lumberjacks for the sleepers required.