How to Supply 12 Volt DC to All the Windows in a New House Build

You just answered your own question, "how do I splice 30 connections" / "breaker box for DC". However only one breaker box/service panel/load center on the market is capable of supporting DC, and that is Square D's "QO" type (the one with the 3/4" breakers; NOT the cheapie Homeline!)The trick is voltage drop. The much lower voltage is also much more sensitive to resistance loss through the wires. That forces you into larger wires. The good news is, economics of scale make #12 or #14 wire intended for AC mains barely more expensive than the #18 or #22 one normally associates with low voltage DC. There's no substitute for figuring out your current draws and doing the load calculations based on your distance. This must be done.Note that 24-volt systems are 4 times better for voltage drop. Crunch the numbers and you will see. If it's feasible to go 24V, consider it.12V or 24V DC systems can be an incredibly verstaile addition to a home, and can even allow it to weather long power outages with high functionality, much moreso if the house is smartly designed around that idea.For instance, a variety of LED lighting is made for 12/24V, including the popular LED strips, which dim very effectively, and even permit RGB color. Motion sensors are cheaper in 12/24V. If you make this auxiliary lighting, you could have it during power outages by adding a battery to the system. Many Internet modems/routers work on 12V, as do many TVs, and a typical Roku box or other smart-box attachment will also like 12V power. So there you are watching Netflix in the power outage. 12/24V house-sized refrigerators are not worth buying, but you can run an inverter for the times the fridge needs to run.The batteries need to be sized for the run-time you want to have, but them with some solar panels to top them up can be a lot cheaper than an installed generator system with changeover switch, yadayada. Heck a modest battery system is cheaper than those hokey 10-circuit switches alone. Or very small generator can be used simply to top up the batteries during period of low sun (or for that matter, your car's alternator).It could build out into quite a system if you wanted to

1. Interchangeable lenses allow for differentiated light distribution in architectural lighting (MAGAZINE)

This article was published in the June 2011 issue of LEDs Magazine. View the Table of Contents and download the PDF file of the complete June 2011 issue. Discussions concerning the efficiency of LED lighting largely revolve around the high luminous efficacy of the semiconductor light sources. As a result, the potential of the light-guidance system is often pushed into the background. However, while the development of increasingly more efficient LEDs occupies the research laboratories of the major corporations in the electronics industry, the optimisation of LED technology gives luminaire manufacturers the chance to optimize their own lighting engineering and to provide users with definite advantages in terms of lighting quality, flexibility and economic efficiency. The optical systems for LED lighting products are very different from conventional luminaires with reflector technology. Because transmission with lenses is more efficient than reflection with reflectors, LED luminaires fitted with the appropriate lens systems deliver a better light output ratio. In architectural lighting, interchangeable Spherolit lenses offer the big advantage that differentiated light distributions can be obtained. Alternative lenses can be exchanged simply to suit altered lighting tasks with one and the same luminaire. As described in this article, lighting manufacturer Erco has developed Spherolit lenses for LED optical systems. Spherolit technology is based on dividing up a large lens surface into individual, three dimensionally domed facets that control the light using refraction. By individually shaping each "spherolite" facet, the characteristics of the lens can be extensively controlled. Depending on the curvature of each individual facet, the parallel incident light is dispersed to a greater or lesser extent. This results in different lenses that, for the same basic geometry, can have different beam angles ranging from "narrow spot" to "wide flood." Made of optical polymer, the lenses are extremely high precision components and place exacting demands on tool making and on manufacturing via the injection-molding process. The quality of an optical system has a major influence on the overall efficiency of an LED luminaire. The combination of an LED lens, collimator and Spherolit lens can provide a very high performance and flexible system in architectural lighting (Figs. 1 & 3). A collimator, made of an optical polymer and acting as a secondary lens, forms the link in the chain between the LED lens on the printed circuit board, as the primary lens, and the interchangeable Spherolit lenses as the tertiary lenses. The collimator aligns the light of the LED chip, with its hemispherical light distribution, into a parallel beam so that the required light distribution can then be formed by the replaceable tertiary lens. This approach offers the practical advantage that in situations where the use of the lighting is always changing, such as in exhibitions or in showrooms, the light distribution can be altered to suit the lighting task thanks to an interchangeable system. By exchanging the tertiary lens from one that gives a narrow beam for accent lighting to one with a wall-washer characteristic for vertical ambient lighting, it is an easy matter to modify the lighting concept and the atmosphere in the room. Clip-mounted Spherolit lenses allow both lighting professionals and ordinary users alike to alter the light distribution. The sensitive interface between the LED chip and the collimator can be precisely and cleanly fitted in the factory, while the easy exchangeability of the Spherolit lenses gives the user the benefit of adjustability in actual usage situations. Depending on the design of the collimator, the rays of light are formed into a parallel beam via total reflection at the edge surfaces or even in combination with a middle lens section. The advantage of collimators, which function solely by total internal reflection, lies in their high efficiency. In terms of production engineering, the normal injection-molding process is faced with the challenge of having to ensure that component thicknesses are as uniform as possible. This is to avoid what are known as sink marks, which occur as the component cools down, and could otherwise impair the guidance of the rays from the LED. In contrast to normally- used collimators, therefore, the middle lens section in this case is replaced by a Fresnel lens of reduced component thickness in order to simplify the injection molding process (Fig. 4). However, the very narrow-beam light distribution of LEDs presents a particular challenge. According to the law of conservation of geometrical optics, a relatively large emission surface is required for the very small luminous surface of the LED chips. To enable a normal injection molding process to be used for this collimator too, a special variant has been developed that uses double total internal reflection to allow a relatively uniform component thickness (Fig. 5). This principle also enables a more efficient light guidance for very narrow beam angles using readily obtainable systems with a combination of reflector and lens. Pins positioned on the collimator facilitate precise and fast installation on the PCB using screws or clips. The screwed-on attachment to the heat sink also forms a thermal connection, providing heat management for the LED chips. The actual light distribution, which may be narrow beam for accent lighting or wide beam for flood-type lighting for instance, is determined using Spherolit lenses as tertiary optical systems (Figs. 6a. & 6b.). Axially-symmetrical Spherolit geometries can produce oval beams, allowing elongated sculptures or tables to be illuminated with just one luminaire, whereas asymmetric Spherolit forms can be used for uniform wall-washing. The Spherolit geometries have been designed to give beams that are particularly uniform and without striations, while having clear, slightly softened edges. To help the user identify these lenses, which often look very similar, the edges of the Spherolit lenses are labelled with the name of their particular characteristic. Compared to systems that only use one collimator, this approach using collimators and tertiary lenses does produce losses due to reflections, albeit very low losses. However, this is far outweighed by the benefits in terms of increased flexibility in use. To obtain a different light distribution, it is not necessary to have another luminaire, but just to use a different Spherolit lens. Furthermore, the more complex optical systems such as "oval flood" or "wall wash" cannot be achieved using pure collimator technology. Conventional point-light sources such as low-voltage halogen lamps or high-pressure discharge lamps emit their light in a solid angle of virtually 360, whereas LEDs, which are directed by nature, emit their light in a solid angle of

2. Is it better to use DC appliance in solar home rather than AC, such as LED lighting, TV, fan etc... for decrease power loss in inverter?

Existing grid tied home with existing appliances, new solar, just grid tie the solar and get your incentives. DC appliances would be lots of not needed costs. Go for things like LED bulbs that are bright and consume less than 10w and fit normal AC sockets. New solar OFF-grid home, can be all DC. No inverter required. Get all new DC appliances. Make sure the home is wired to minimize losses. Current is the limiting factor. Since you are probably working with 24v DC, you will have higher currents for the same power as a 115vAC system (power equals current times voltage) Definitely need good low power stuff like LED lighting

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Explain the Key Points of LED Lighting Driving Power Supply in Detail
In order to save energy and power, LED has been greatly promoted, but led needs a power driver, which will directly affect the service life of LED. Therefore, how to do a good LED driving power supply is the top priority of LED power designer. This paper introduces some problems of LED driving power supply, hoping to provide some help to engineers.1. The driving circuit directly affects the service life of LEDThe LED driver we mentioned includes digital driver and analog driver. Digital driver refers to digital circuit driver, including digital dimming control, RGB full-color change, etc. Analog drive refers to analog circuit drive, including AC constant current switching power supply and DC constant current control circuit. The driving circuit is composed of electronic components, including semiconductor components, resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc. these components have service life. The failure of any device will lead to the failure of the whole circuit or some functions. The service life of LED is 50000-100000 hours. If it is continuously lit according to 50000 hours, it has a service life of nearly 6 years. The service life of switching power supply is difficult to reach 6 years. The warranty period of switching power supply sold on the market is generally 2-3 years. The power supply with 6-year warranty is military grade, and the price is 4-6 times that of ordinary power supply. It is difficult for ordinary lamp manufacturers to accept it. Therefore, the faults of LED lamps are mostly driving circuit faults.2. Heat dissipation problemLED is a cold light source, the working junction temperature cannot exceed the limit, and a certain margin should be reserved during design. The design of the whole lamp should consider many aspects, such as beautiful appearance, convenient installation, light distribution, heat dissipation and so on. It is necessary to find a balance point among many factors, so that the overall lamp is the best. The development time of LED lamps is not long, there is not much experience to learn from, and many designs are constantly improved. The power supply used by some LED lamp manufacturers is outsourced or purchased. The lamp designer does not know much about the power supply, so the heat dissipation space for LED is large and that for power supply is small. It is generally to find a suitable power supply after designing the lamps, which brings some difficulty to the power supply. It is often encountered that due to the small internal space or high internal temperature of the lamp, and the low cost control, it is impossible to allocate a suitable power supply. Some LED lamp manufacturers have power R & D capability. The above problems can be solved by evaluating at the initial stage of designing lamps and designing power supply synchronously. In the design, we should comprehensively consider the heat dissipation of LED and power supply, and control the temperature rise of lamps as a whole, so as to design better lamps.3. Problems in power supply designa. Power design. Although the LED has high luminous efficiency, there is still 80-85% heat loss, resulting in a temperature rise of 20-30 degrees inside the lamp. If the room temperature is 25 degrees, there is 45-55 degrees inside the lamp. The power supply works in a high-temperature environment for a long time. In order to ensure the service life, the power margin must be increased, which is generally reserved to 1.5-2 times.b. Component selection. When the internal temperature of the lamp is 45-55 degrees, the internal temperature rise of the power supply is about 20 degrees, and the temperature near the element should reach 65-75 degrees. The parameters of some components will drift at high temperature, and the service life of some components will be shortened. Therefore, the devices should be selected that can be used at high temperature for a long time, with special attention to electrolytic capacitors and wires.C. Electrical performance design. The parameter design of switching power supply for LED is mainly constant current parameter. The size of current determines the brightness of LED. If the batch current error is large, the brightness of the whole batch of lamps is uneven. Moreover, the change of temperature can also cause the output current of the power supply to shift. Generally, the batch error is controlled within / - 5% to ensure the consistent brightness of the lamp. There is deviation in the forward voltage drop of the LED, and the constant current voltage range of the power supply design should include the voltage range of the LED. When multiple LEDs are connected in series, the minimum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the lower limit voltage, and the maximum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the upper limit voltage. The constant current voltage range of the power supply is slightly wider than this range. Generally, 1-2v margin is reserved for the upper and lower limits.d. PCB layout design. The size of LED lamps left for the power supply is small (unless it is external to the power supply), so there are high requirements in PCB design and many factors to be considered. Enough safety distance shall be reserved for the power supply requiring input and output isolation. The withstand voltage of primary side circuit and secondary side circuit shall be 1500-2000vac, and at least 3mm distance shall be reserved on the PCB. If it is a lamp with metal shell, the safety distance between the high-voltage part and the shell shall also be considered for the cloth plate of the whole power supply. If there is no space to ensure a safe distance, other measures should be taken to ensure insulation, such as drilling holes on PCB, adding insulating paper, potting insulating glue, etc. In addition, the heat balance shall be considered for the cloth plate, and the heating elements shall be evenly distributed and cannot be placed centrally to avoid local temperature rise. The electrolytic capacitor is far away from the heat source to slow down the aging and prolong the service life.e. Certification issues. At present, there is no standard for LED lamps in China. Relevant national departments are studying and formulating. The certification of lamps sold in China is based on the standards of lighting lamps, while those sold abroad are CE or UL certification, and some are based on foreign LED lamp standards. Therefore, in view of this situation, it is difficult for the design of switching power supply to meet the above standards at the same time. We can only meet different certification according to different requirements.4. Use parameters.The selection of purchased power supply mainly depends on the voltage range of constant current and constant current. The constant current value is lower than the standard current of LED. The selection of voltage range shall be moderate, and try not to select a large range to avoid power waste.
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