Evaluating Green Bonds: More Information Will Boost Investor Confidence

Financial industry experts and policymakers agree that green investing, led by the private sector, is one of the keys to protecting the environment and accelerating the transition to a sustainable low-carbon economy. The growing popularity of financial innovations like green bonds underscores how rapidly progress is being made toward those goals.But how can investors be sure a green bond is actually delivering on its promises? As the green bond market develops, credit rating firms and other industry players are offering evaluation tools to provide more and better information for investors.

Green bonds work just like other corporate or government debt securities, with a set interest rate and repayment of principal over an agreed upon time frame. The key difference is that the capital raised by the bond issue is pledged to environmentally friendly ends, such as cleaner renewable energy technologies like solar and wind power; sustainable land use and construction projects; or environmentally friendly transit systems that reduce carbon emissions, for example.These financial instruments scarcely existed a decade ago, but since then the market for green bonds has grown dramatically worldwide. Moodys Investor Services estimates green bond issuance volume will nearly double to $75 billion this year, according to a report in the International Business Times.Growing investor demand also means a growing demand for reliable information about green investment vehicles and their results. The lack of a commonly accepted definition of green investing in this emerging market has made it difficult to quantify and validate the success of these projects.

After all, green investors arent interested only in their bottom-line returns they also want to know their investment is having the desired environmental impact.Clear-eyed, objective analysis of green financial tools is necessary to help investors make the best decisions and gain comfort that their green investments are being used as promised. Toward that end, a number of financial sector groups are developing tools to improve reporting and assessment of green bonds. A few examples:· The International Capital Markets Association (ICMA) developed a set of Green Bond Principles to aid investors, issuers and underwriters. The principles are voluntary guidelines that recommend transparency and disclosure and promote integrity in the development of the green bond market by clarifying the approach for issuance.· Moodys Investors Services launched a green bond assessment (GBA) program in March 2016 offering a consistent, standardized and transparent framework for evaluating an issuers approach for managing, administering, and allocating proceeds to and reporting on environmental projects financed by green bonds.

Since then, Moodys has assessed several green bond issuances, including its first U.S. green municipal bond for a water project in New Yorks Upper Mohawk Valley.· Likewise, Standard & Poors (S&P) Global Ratings introduced its own Green Bonds Evaluation framework in September. The S&P product assesses green bond projects based on transparency, governance and effectiveness in mitigation and adaptation.Those are just a few examples others are quickly stepping up to offer competing products. This flourishing of information signals the evolution of the still relatively young green bond market; over time, more and better metrics will help investors compare qualitative performance of bonds. Thats an important first step toward a reliable rating system for green bonds, which will boost investor confidence in this growing sector.Proponents of green finance rightly emphasize how these investments will go a long way toward building a more sustainable economy, while sparking renewed economic growth and creating new jobs. Enhanced disclosure and transparency will serve to nurture greater confidence in the potential of green finance to address some of the most pressing global challenges.

Matt Donohue, Moodys senior vice president for global product management, explains that green bond market is positioned to continue growing, bolstered by improved information and reporting that helps investors to better assess the performance.We are seeing a growing number of investors, issuers and intermediaries who believe that green bonds are particularly well-suited as a source of capital to finance a transition to a low-carbon economy, Donohue says. Capital market financing needs combined with rising demand for socially responsible investments, standardization of offerings and the issuance of benchmark-sized deals that are effectively priced should increase green bond issuances for years to come.

The road to a sustainable green economy isnt going to be easy. But the rise of green finance, including the introduction of innovative tools to assess the performance of green securities, is a welcome development that will help to smooth the path forward

·RELATED QUESTION

Yellow LED got burned, green LED didn't closed

I'm expecting that the green LED should also be burned, because I think, that's the way how LED's work.LEDs get burned from excessive heat that is the result of excessive current. Green LEDs have higher forward voltage than yellow LEDs so, if everything else is equal, the "excessive" current through the green LED is smaller than the one through the yellow LED, thus causing the yellow LED to warm up faster and thus burn out faster.

Other factors may still attribute to the yellow's burn-out

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Green LED Blinking 7 Times with Rainbow Colour Image on Screen
According to R-Pi Troubleshooting with 7 flashes of the green led the kernel.img is not found. I do not have any experience with android things but in general the Raspberry Pi boot loader expects its boot files including the kernel image on the first partition of the SD Card. This partition must be formated with the FAT file system. So please check if this conditions are met. To compare, the boot partition of the official supported Raspbian Stretch Lite 2019-04-08 contains this files:Further information about the boot process you can find at Boot flow1. How much would people pay for a rainbow loom bracelets?2 or more2. Deep Purple, Rainbow, or Blackmore's Night?I am the man on the silver mountaiiiin3. How can a gay turn a rainbow into a icon for gay rights?"I have nothing against them" 4. Does Rainbow Table Not Require Decompression?No. The compression does not work like traditional RLE or LZMA style compression.Rainbow tables are, essentially, a lookup table which allows you to find a string given its hash. They are designed to be incredibly efficient at finding a hash in the index across billions of entries, while minimising disk space. Now, imagine you are building a table for lots and lots of strings. The hashes of some of these strings start with the same bytes - for example, "StackExchange", "ILikeWaffles9", "ILikeWaffles13507", and "Decompression242" when hashed with MD5 all start with 0xF2. Instead of storing all three hashes fully, you can construct a tree-like structure such that data looks like this:Note that the hashes are sorted by numeric order. In fact, since the first two strings also share the same second byte (0x17) these can also be chained:This also allows you to perform a lookup incredibly quickly - instead of having to search the full table, you only have to traverse the tree, and then search through a smaller list of hashes. Since the hashes are sorted, you can perform a binary search, which also has very good performance.As an example, if I have the hash f217f4a64e4036025c07b24a96ec787a, I look for the first tree node f2, then look to see if there's a sub-node for the second byte, 17. There is, so I continue down. I check to see if there's a sub-node for f4. There is not , so I now search through the list within the f2 -> 17 node. I know that f4 is likely to be near the end of that list, so I start there. I find that the hash matches the one I am searching for, so I now know that the plaintext is "Decompression242".It is also incredibly space-efficient when you've got millions or billions of hashes, because you do not duplicate parts of the hash that are shared with other plaintexts.EDIT: Sorry, I should have pointed out that this is not literally how rainbow tables work. This is just an example of how compression can work in this regard, without needing to actually save a full hash for each plaintext. I did not mean to imply otherwise. IMSoP's answer better describes the actual workings.The key thing to remember is that rainbow tables are only useful when you want to do multiple hash searches for that hash type. You generate a rainbow table for a particular string list or character list ahead of time, only once, and then you can use that generated data set as many times as you like. It's a trade-off of doing a lot of work ahead of time, so that your later searches are very fast.Another key thing is that any hash system which includes a salt automatically renders rainbow tables useless, since each password and salt combination should (ideally) be unique and long enough to make it impractical to build a rainbow table for every possible password and hash combination.
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B 1GB Not Booting - RED and GREEN LEDs ON
I got solid red and green lights on my little Pi 2B due to simply copying the file contents over rather than following the instructions here. Fixing my SD card fixed the problem.For me simply doing a cp didn't work but using dd did• Related QuestionsWhat is a single word for the capability of a theory, for example, to generate further thought and theorizing?I would suggest thought-provoking.interesting in a way that makes you think of new ideas or that changes your attitude to something macmillandictionarystimulating interest or thoughtthefreedictionaryWhat is most thought-provoking in these thought-provoking times, is that we are still not thinking. 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Shane Greenes Gem Led to a Yankees Win Over the Orioles
caption idattachment_2265" alignaligncenter width300"Shane Greene pitching for the Trenton Thunder./captionThe 30 win by the Yankees over the Baltimore Orioles on Saturday afternoon ended their two-game losing streak. Shane Greene has now picked up a win in each of his first two major league starts, and he appears to be able give the team more starts like this because of his dominating stuff.Greene was aggressive against the dangerous Orioles lineup, which helped him leave his second start with an outstanding 1.32 ERA. He has only allowed two earned runs in his 13.1 innings pitched and hasnt allowed a hit in his first 4.2 innings in each of his first two starts.He threw 7.1 shutout innings against the Orioles, had an impressive nine strikeouts while only giving up four hits. In an interview on the field after the game, Greene said that he feels that all of his pitches were working.I felt pretty confident in everything today, Greene said. More than anything I just trusted Cervelli and threw everything with conviction. It is definitely an opportunity and Im trying to make the best of it. I like where I am at.The Orioles had runners on second and third with two outs in the fifth but Greene got a big strikeout against Nick Hundley. Cervelli said that he was throwing his sinker and slider very well.In the third inning, the Yankees scored their first run off of a double to deep right that scored Brett Gardner. Teixeira drove in his team-leading 48th run.In the seventh inning, the Yankees scored their second and third runs off of Orioles starter Chris Tillman. Kelly Johnson advanced to second with one out after a wild pitch by Tillman. Derek Jeters single to left drove in Jeter, and Jeter advanced to second on the throw. Jacoby Ellsbury hit a double near the line in right to score Jeter to give the Yankees a 30 lead. He leads the team with 20 doubles.The Yankees had nine hits in the win, highlighted by three by Brian McCann and two by Jeter. McCann is improving at the plate as he now has two multi-hit games in a row.Zelous Wheeler, who came into the game as a defense replacement, made an outstanding leaping catch at third for the first out of the ninth inning. David Robertson struck out Chris David and J.J. Hardy to record his 23rd save in 25 chances. He has a 2.76 ERA, 59 strikeouts and only 10 walks. He has recorded multiple strikeouts in seven of his last 10 appearances.Joe Girardi was impressed that Greene was able to step up with runners on base. His innings were pretty short and he got some big outs when he had to, Girardi said. He didnt walk people. He was ahead in the count and didnt beat himself.So far this season, the Yankees are in impressive 32 and 12 when they score first. They are also 64 on their current road trip, which ends tomorrow, and after going 411 in Saturdays game, have hit an impressive .304 with runners in scoring position.They are now four games behind the first place Orioles, and Chase Whitley will look to help them decrease the deficit on Sunday, which will be the last game before the All-Star break. It is important that they go into the break with momentum, and being three games out with all of the injuries to the rotation and offensive underperformance would be impressive.·RELATED QUESTIONAre green led lights legal to drive with as underbody kits?If you can buy them over the counter they must be legal
Alternatives to 311: a Citizen-led Movement for Change
311 is a toll-free, non-emergency phone number that people in many cities can call to get information about municipal services (like trash collection), make complaints (like a pothole), or report urgent problems (like a downed power line). Even in cities where a number other than 311 is used, 311 is the most recognized name for this type of phone system. In many places, 311 is now also available as a smartphone app.Residents are the natural eyes and ears of their neighborhoods, so any system that amplifies their voices straight to city hall gets a gold star from ioby. But what about those residents who want to do more than make a 30-second call to 311 when they notice something amiss on their block? What can neighbors do when they decide its not enough to make a report they also need to take some action?Were proud to introduce you to three ioby Leaders who saw opportunities for improvement where they live, and who didnt wait for someone else (even the government) to step in. While their projects are quite different in nature, they all used iobys crowdfunding platform to raise the money needed to make them happen.1) Community phone banking: A super-sized version of 311!Michalyn Easter raised almost $2,000 for her project Friends of Chelsea Greenline Advocacy Group, which gave North Memphians an official voice in the development of their neighborhoods new greenway. Following that win, Michalyn began leading a different kind of project to improve health, safety, and quality of life where she lives: a 311 phone bank group. The group meets monthly over donuts to make service requests to the city, and submits them all under the same account so they can easily track their success rate. (Last time we checked, they were sitting at an impressive 98 percent.)Michalyn says: I think the group has made some people more aware of what we can do about our surroundings. Theyre not just standing there anymore, shaking their heads and saying, Oh, the neighborhoods gone down. Together, were showing the city that they cant just take care of the wealthiest areas. In North Memphis, we pay taxes, too, and we care about our quality of life as well. (Get more ideas from this 311 phone banking slide presentation Michalyn made for new recruits.)2) St. Lukes Pointe Traffic Calming: Being the change we want to seeA grandmother of 19!, Lucille White known as Miss Lucille to the Cleveland students who love her lost two nieces to hit-and-runs. She became a crossing guard to help protect other vulnerable pedestrians from reckless drivers, and she raised money on ioby to outfit her intersection with traffic cones, roll-out speed bumps, sidewalk chalk, planters, and signage.Miss Lucille says: Its a dedication to life, for me. Its about helping those who are especially at risk the young, the elderly, the disabled cross safely, and asking them about their day as they go. I talk to them about positive things, and how good theyre doing. You have kids that come to school at 7:15 in the morning, and theyre walking in the dark. Whos watching out for them? Nobody. Im their eyes.3) Cooper/Higbee Underpass Mural & Central Ave Underpass Mural: From somebody should to why not me?!Betsy Robinson saw herself as a nurse practitioner not a community organizer or local leader. When her family moved to Memphis, she would remark to her kids about the ugly underpass walls they had to walk by to get to their neighborhood park. When she wondered aloud to a friend why someone didnt paint a couple of murals there, her friend wisely replied, So do it! Not long after, Betsy was the proud co-parent of not one but two beautiful murals that sparked media attention, employed local artists, and lifted her neighborhood up.Betsy says: I honestly never thought I would do anything like this, ever. But I went about it hoping that my kids would see that Im not just complaining about the place I live Im actually able to do something about it. I wanted them to see that we have the ability to make a change. Theres a lot of things I didnt know I was capable of, in doing this.***Are you ready to move beyond 311 and take on-the-ground action to make your neighborhood better? Tell us your idea! We can help you raise the money and publicity, and buy-in, and volunteers you need to make it happen.Further reading: Peruse a brief history of 311 in Government Technology.·RELATED QUESTIONi have a digital camera Nikon* its not work now just red &green led flashing?Get it checked from the dealer or NIKON authorised shop Most probably that is a software problem and you need to get new software uploaded. Some Nikon cameras have this problem and new software should fix it
Where My Glaciers Are ???
The need to generate power by humans led to depletion of fossil fuels at a very faster rate . It is the main cause for the carbon-dioxide emission into the atmosphere. Humans are emitting Carbon-dioxide at a very faster rate than the absorption made by the plants and oceans.A report from National Geographic news says that humans have caused almost all the present days planetary warming, Based on the project report submitted by 2500 scientists in 130 countries.Humans have polluted the earth to such an extent that even if the emissions are made to be stopped today, the global warming wouldn't stop all of a sudden.Desertification has been increased in many places . For example the boundaries of Thar desert and Gobi desert is been increasing day-by-day. It led to a situation of food shortages in many places.Natural disasters have become common in many parts of the earth. Millions of species are in the level of extinction because of the disturbance made to their habitat by man-made causes, Ecosystem change and Ocean acidification.Global warming causes the glaciers to melt eventually and it leads to the rise in the sea-level , which creates water shortages in the places or regions dependent on run-off for fresh water.Data clearly reveals that India has not only turned hot in the last two decades, the duration and frequency of heat waves has increased to a greater extent which caused more number of deaths.According to scientists from Indian Institute of tropical meteorology, In India 2015, 25000 deaths were made to be recorded by the heat waves.National oceanic and atmospheric administration (NOAA) said that for 2016, till date the global average temperature was 2.07 degree Fahrenheit above 20th century average. It is the highest temperature in 18802016 . It is a record breaking term when compared to 2015 by 0.5 degree Fahrenheit.The particulate pollution from fossil- fueled power plants leads to impaired lung function , Shortness of breath , pre-mature death and many more diseases ,Usage of renewable energy is the only remedy to overcome the above situation , Where thousands of lives can be saved . Renewable energy lessen the threat to climatic change , Human health , Air- pollution , Depletion of water resources and other pollution·RELATED QUESTIONYellow LED got burned, green LED didn't closedMajenko already mentioned the reason. Maybe it's good to add that different colored LEDs (and even each type/model) should have its 'calculated' resistor.Find the forward voltage of the LED (differs per type/color), and use the following formula :E.g. if the forward voltage is 2V and you use a 5V Arduino and want 20 mA:The maximum mA you can find also in the data sheet of the LED.
One Thing You Can Learn in 2 Minutes That Will Be Useful for the Rest of Your Life
In 430 BC, the second year of the Peloponnesian War, Greek general led a fleet of over 100 ships towards the enemy island.As they were charging ahead at full speed, suddenly, a solar eclipse cast the entire fleet into darkness.Unaware of the scientific nature of this unexpected and shocking event, panic befell the soldiers and sailors. But not .He took off his black cloak, walked to the navigator of his ship, held it around his head and asked the man: Are you afraid of what you see?Looking at nothing but a piece of black cloththe man replied: No, of course not! countered: So what does it matter, if the cause of the darkness is a different one?When we dont understand something, our minds conjure the wildest, most sinister and dismal explanations. The result is fear and fear leads to bad decisions.But when we question our own perspective, we find we can often explain the fear away.Perspective is everything.The beauty in that is were free to change our perspective at any second.We can choose to try different angles of looking at any situation, to break it down into its parts, to look past it, around it or through it, until we find the perspective we need to move forward.Man does not simply exist but always decides what his existence will be, what he will become the next moment. By the same token, every human being has the freedom to change at any instant.Viktor FranklIf you pause for a moment to remember this story, itll be useful for the rest of your life.I myself first learned it from Ryan Holidays book, The Obstacle Is The Way, for which I wrote a summary here.This article started as an answer on quora.com·RELATED QUESTIONHow to make a green LED as visually bright as a 0 magnitude star?This is not a full answer, as I don't know how to compare an led with a candle, and I am not sure than the "answer" makes sense, even in rough estimate terms. Please just treat it as background and I will then delete it. Candle Study AbstractUsing CCD observations of a candle flame situated at a distance of 338 m and calibrated with observations of Vega, we show that a candle flame situated at 2.6 km (1.6 miles) is comparable in brightness to a 6th magnitude star with the spectral energy distribution of Vega. The human eye cannot detect a candle flame at 10 miles or further, as some statements on the web suggest.Wikipedia says, as you already know:A magnitude 1 star is exactly a hundred times brighter than a magnitude 6 star, as the difference of five magnitude steps corresponds to $(2.512)^5$or 100. But this does not make much sense either, especially when you go up another magnitude scale to mag 0.Comparing units of light power brings us back to the dark ages (sorry). One candlepower is the radiating power of a light with the intensity of one candle. This unit is considered obsolete as it was replaced by the candela in 1948, though it is still in common use. 1 candlepower is equal to about 0.981 candela. candelaThe standard unit for measuring the intensity of light. The candela is defined to be the luminous intensity of a light source producing single-frequency light at a frequency of 540 terahertz (THz) with a power of 1/683 watt per steradian, or 18.3988 milliwatts over a complete sphere centered at the light source.
Mens Health Question Teen Child ?
1 that is not true. if you get an erection and you ignore it, it will eventually go down and nothing will come out. when you do masturbate, though, you cu m a lot more. #2 your friend is probably right. the more you masturbate on a daily basis, the less wet dreams you will have. try wearing looser pants and underwear. briefs rub against your dick and make it hard. loose boxers will give it room and less stimulation.1. Sskinny dipping guys and girls teen (mens health)?Do not listen to fib or whatever the hell his names is. He's just mad because hes still a virgin. Talk to the guys and get them all to do it at the same time and have a blast.2. Why are there more girls answering questions in "Mens Health" than men?More women are answering this question then men! Never been to the womens health section3. *Mens health* Do you think its right to hit a girl? (guys only)?no because it breakes up thier relationship and if u are married u prob will endup with a worse relationship and get divorse4. How to do something in mens health?purchase a pair of briefs (not boxers, jockstraps) briefs that are like 3 to 4 sizes TOO small for you. put them on. get an erection, now gyrate in the briefs, and not using your hands. the friction and rubbing against the fabric of the taut underwear will ........well, you know. /Jerome5. Why are there so many women in "Mens Health" answering questions that are obviously not applicable to them?Funny how none of them answer this6. mens health: If you could rate yourself....?idk. i guess pretty good lookin for my age. look at my last question7. Do you think if i spend more time in 'mens health' my sense of humor will return?Heck yes thats a great place for ya mate! Oh! sorry WIL I thought you said "mental health" Forget it! just come on by the pub and I will buy you one.Thats sure to improve your humor8. The Trick Bodybuilders Use to Develop Their Quads and HamstringsWant more development in your quadriceps or hamstrings? Then use this easy bodybuilding trick: Elevate your heels or toes during your next lower-body workout, says Men's Health Fitness Director B.J. Gaddour, who demonstrates both in the video above. Related: The Anarchy Workout: an Exciting and Intense DVD Fitness Program From Men's Health That will Help You Lose Pounds Of Fat In Less Than a Month and a Half Placing your heels on weight plates, a low step, wooden block, or the base of an incline bench can help emphasis your quads, says Gaddour. Take the squat, for instance. The elevated-heel position allows your torso to stay more upright than if your heels were flat, which shifts stress to the front of your upper legs. On the other hand, you will hit your hamstrings more if you put up your toes, he explains. The position increases the stretch demand on the hamstrings. Add load, and it can spur muscle growth. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io9. questions for the dogsssss?you should ask this in men's health..you get all the guys answers there...i promise10. problem down low? mens health please help?Its nothing to worry about :) there normal if your really worried though go to the doctors hope i helped :)11. Why dont people in the Mens Health section not get that there is more to life than a PENUS and MASTERBATING ?I know. The spelling is horrible and there is a spell check 'button' right above this box I am typing in. I can not believe people do not use it. There are a lot of the same questions, I knew guys where obsessed with the size of their penis, just not THAT obsessed.12. would you consider the mens health section the funniest section on yahoo answers?lol I peeped at it once, I was like are they even serious with these questions
NBA Final Chances for Teams?
Spurs and Jazz should be lower. Spurs are without Ginobili and Jazz can not buy a game on the road (and will most probably be 8th seed and face the Lakers)1. Top 10 MLB teams of 2012?1.New York Yankees 2.Philadelphia Phillies 3.Texas Rangers 4.Detroit Tigers 5.St.Louis Cardinals 6.Los Angeles Angels 7.Arizona Diamondbacks 8.Tampa Bay Rays 9.Boston Redsox 10.San Francisco Giants2. Can someone sum up a career in marketing?First, the problem is that marketing is such a broad term- so go explore various companies to see what industry might work for you. What a marketing person does at a bank will be pretty different than what someone does at a retail company and different than what you would do if you worked at a consumer products company. And in some cases marketing is really sales but they dress up the title to make it sound better. I can best speak to marketing in consumer products and retailers. Consumer products companies almost always want you to have an MBA just to get hired. You start as an assistant maketing/brand/product manager and then work your way up. In most companies it is very competitive. In many companies they use the expression "up or out." If you do not get promoted you will surely get fired. So if you start at a company with 20 friends, in 2 years there will be 10-15 left, in 2 more 10, 2 more only a few remain, etc. In other companies it is not that competitive. But in consumer products companies the idea is that the marketing people are the ones who really run the show - they are the team leaders for the company and are responsible for running a business. And since it pays well, you are accountable: for working with ad agencies, manufacturing people, accounting/finance, and more. A small part of your job is marketing (i.e. thinking about strategy, planning, etc.), most is managing projects and teams while implementing your strategy and plans. In other companies, like retailing, marketing works most with the advertising agencies and leads on communications. People called "merchandisers" play a role similar to marketing people in consumer products companies. Merchandisers work with designers, marketers, factories, etc. on the way to bringing new clothing to market. In the two examples above the marketer is a team leader and coordinator who needs to ensure the companies key initiatives actually happen. In high-tech companies, marketing can often be a supporting role with product developers being the leads. In those cases prepare to take a back seat to the technical folks. You are not a leader, you are one of many team members and you probably just take what you are given and try to come up with a story to market it (in consumer products you would guide the product development not just take what you are given). In large companies, marketing is a hard job. Most people I know do not last too long in one company. Many get experience in large companies ( a great place to learn) but then go to smaller companies where they can do more- often becoming leaders of the company. In the other fields, that might not be the route since responsiblities are not the same. That's the best I can do. Call a school like Northwestern's Kellogg School (Chicago) and talk to them about marketing and brand management. They are one of the leading schools for marketing.3. how many hockey teams are their?There are 30 NHL hockey teams. Anehiem Ducks Atlanta Thrahers Boston Bruins Buffalo Sabres Calgary Flames Carolina Hurricanes Chicago Blackhawks Colorado Avalanche Columbus Blue Jackets Dallas Stars Detroit Red Wings Edmonton Oilers Florida Panthers L.A. Kings Minnesota Wild Montreal Canadiens Nashville Predators New Jersey Devils New York Islanders New York Rangers Ottawa Senators Philidelphia Flyers Pheonix Coyotes Pittsburgh Penguins San Jose Sharks St. Louis Blues Tampa Bay Lightning Toronto Maple Leafs Vancouver Canucks Washington Capitals 24 teams in the NHL are American 6 teams in the NHL are Canadian4. Rank these 3 NFL teams?1 Chargers 2 49ers 3 Titans5. who are the skilled young players for these teams?Good Question PG: Steve Nash SG: Stephen Curry SF: Paul Pierce PF: Pau Gasol C: Andrea Bargnani
History of the Lewis Merthyr Colliery
Although coal was mined as early as the seventeenth century in the Rhondda for domestic purposes, the earliest recorded opening and mining of a safe coal level was in 1790 by Dr Richard Griffiths, who was also responsible for bringing the first tram road into the Rhondda. Subsequently, Walter Coffin opened and sunk the first pits paving the way for the discovery of rich and prosperous steam coal seams with many more lines to follow. Two pits were opened in 1850 on what was to become the Lewis Merthyr site: Hafod by two brothers David and John Thomas Coed Cae by Edward MillsBoth pits had to be abandoned early on due to the conditions of the workings. In the mid-1870s William Thomas Lewis (later Lord Merthyr) purchased and reopened the two pits, mining the upper bituminous (household) coal seams, until Hafod closed around 1893 and Coed Cae in the 1930s. By 1880 WT Lewis had sunk the Bertie shaft, and in 1890 the Trefor shaft (both named after his sons), by which time the company had become known as the Lewis Merthyr Consolidated Collieries Ltd, employing some 5,000 men and producing almost a million tons of coal annually. The two headframes and associated colliery buildings are now Grade II* listed buildings. In 1904 the company sunk the Lady Lewis Colliery one mile (1.6 km) to the north east in the Rhondda Fach. In 1905 the company acquired Universal Colliery at Senghenydd, which was later to suffer the worst ever mining disaster in British history. In 1929 the colliery became part of the Powell Dyffryn Group, and in the same year Coed Cae stopped winding coal. Hafod No 2 followed, and Hafod No 1 in 1933. The colliery was nationalised in 1947. In 1958 Lewis Merthyr Colliery and the neighbouring Ty Mawr Colliery merged and all coal winding ceased at Lewis Merthyr, with coaling continuing via Ty Mawr and men and supplies only at Lewis Merthyr. By 1969 the Colliery had become the Ty Mawr/Lewis Merthyr Colliery. As many as thirteen seams have been worked at the Lewis Merthyr using the advanced longwall method of working with most of the coal being won with pneumatic picks and hand loaded onto conveyors. Until the 1950s the coal industry maintained a steady level of production and employment, but since that time there has been a continuing decline in the number of miners in employment. Most of the pits which have been closed have still left coal to mine, but with oil and coal available more cheaply from abroad the demise of the industry has been inevitable. Nowhere has the decline of the coal industry been more dramatic than in the South Wales Coal Field. At Lewis Merthyr production came to an end on the 14 March 1983 with production continuing in the four feet seam until July when coaling ceased forever at Ty Mawr/Lewis Merthyr. By 1990 not one productive colliery existed in the Rhondda but Rhondda's past has been captured and preserved as an historic landmark at the Lewis Merthyr Colliery now the Rhondda Heritage Park.— — — — — —Easington CollieryEasington Colliery is a town in County Durham, England, known for a history of coal mining. It is situated to the north of Horden, and a short distance to the east of Easington Village. The town suffered a significant mining accident on 29 May 1951, when an explosion in the mine resulted in the deaths of 83 men (including 2 rescue workers). Easington had a population of 4,959 in 2001, and 5,022 at the 2011 Census.— — — — — —Carlton Main Frickley Colliery BandThe Carlton Main Frickley Colliery Band is a brass band based in West Yorkshire, England, and close to South Yorkshire— — — — — —National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies and ShotfirersThe National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies and Shotfirers (NACODS) is an organisation representing former colliery deputies and under-officials in the coal industry— — — — — —Garw/Ffaldau CollieryThe Garw/Ffaldau Colliery was a colliery formed in 1975 in Pontycymer, Wales. It was formed from the joining together of the Garw Colliery and the Ffaldau Colliery. The Ffaldau Colliery had 1,100 workers in 1927, though this had declined by half by the mid 1930s. The pit closed in November 1985; a total of 630 miners lost their jobs. A potential buy out of the pit by workers had been mooted, but this was deemed to have been prohibitively expensive after the National Coal Board cut the ropes on the caged lift and 200,000 tonnes of hardcore were poured down the mine shaft. A reunion was held of former mine workers in 2015. The Garw Colliery (also known as the Ocean Colliery) was one of six pits in the Garw valley. Following the merger of the two pits workers entering at Blaengarw had a 1-2 mile walk underground due to the closure of the access shaft at Pontycymer.
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