Domestic LED Lighting Lamp Patent Status and Top Ten Applications

The LED lighting industry has indeed developed rapidly in recent years, especially in the field of downstream applications, especially in Guangdong Province. However, after the rapid development and expansion, patents have increasingly become the bottleneck for the further development of led enterprises. Therefore, it will not be too late for the patent layout of enterprises to be done at any time, in any place and in any way.

In short, patent layout is the overall goal of the enterprise's patent layout in a certain period of time in the future, and further make specific plans for each layout stage according to the enterprise's development plan to determine the patent layout tasks and measures at each stage; In each implementation stage, the Patent Management Department of the enterprise also needs to put forward more specific indicators for the number and structure of patent layout. In addition, in the implementation process, the enterprise also needs to investigate the layout plan in combination with the implementation of the patent layout plan, the adjustment of the enterprise development plan, and the changes of the external technology, industry and market environment.

First, let's understand the basic situation of LED lighting lamps:

LED lighting fixture is a general term of LED lamps, which refers to the appliances that can transmit light, distribute and change the light distribution of LED light source, including all parts and components required for fixing and protecting LED light source except LED light source, as well as line accessories necessary for power connection. In short, it is composed of LED light source, radiator, lamp shell, driving power supply, support, necessary circuit auxiliary devices and measures to connect them with power supply. In the 21st century, the design of room lamps and lanterns will take the design of LED lamps and lanterns as the mainstream, fully reflect the lighting development trend of energy conservation, health, artistry and humanization, and become the leading of room lighting culture.

At present, the problems perplexing LED lighting technology are as follows:

1. Domestic enterprises have no core technology

Most of the core patents in the upstream of the LED industry are in the hands of foreign companies. We do not master the core technology in China. Although the manufacturing capacity of our LED application products accounts for 50% and 50% in the world, it is the lowest link in the profit link. The cost of LED lighting lamps mainly lies in the LED chip. As long as the chip price is reduced, the lumen unit price of LED can be reduced to the same as that of energy-saving lamps at this stage. As the production process of LED chips with larger size wafers increases with the process and quantity, the cost will continue to be reduced. In recent years, the speed is reduced by 20% every year. In the price factor of LED chips, the improvement of light efficiency should also be included in the price reduction. Better products are purchased at the same price, so there is still much room for price reduction of LED chips.

2. Difficult heat dissipation of LED application products

The heat dissipation cost should be maintained at 5%. The actual heat dissipation design is very simple. Hold two directions: first, the shorter the path between the LED chip and the external radiator, the better your heat dissipation design; Second, the heat dissipation resistance is to have enough heat dissipation transmission paths and enough "heat dissipation roads". This part of the cost is mainly in the structure. The structural design accounts for about 20% of the lamps, and the cost for heat dissipation is not much. Now the biggest problem is how to achieve more innovative and reasonable structural design.

3. LED application power supply

Power supply is the weakest link of LED lighting, which restricts the development of LED lighting. Now the design accounts for about 20% of the cost of LED lighting lamps, which is somewhat high. With the development of technology, the power supply is about 5-10%. Compared with other light sources in the afterlife, the current cost of LED light source is not high, especially led environmental protection, energy saving and mercury free. Moreover, the price of LED lighting lamps is sliding down every quarter. In a short time, the price of LED lighting lamps must reach an acceptable level.

Let's take another look at the patent profile of the LED industry:

Patent application disclosure trend:

The national LED lighting lamps started in 2000 and reached a high peak from 2013 to 2015. It can be seen that led enterprises are stepping up their patent applications.

The first four segments focus on:

F21y101 / 02 miniature light source

F21s2 / 00 lighting system

F21v29 / 00 cooling or heating device

F21v19 / 00 fixing of light source or lamp holder

It can be seen that domestic LED lighting lamps are concentrated in light source, lighting system, heat dissipation and structure, and there are many patent layouts of fixed devices.

Let's take another look at the application of the top 10 LED lamps in China:

The technical layout of domestic led enterprises in the research and development of LED lighting lamps will be weaker than that in the upstream, but this will not become an obstacle to the demand of downstream enterprises. From the simple analysis of the above figure, it can be seen that the subdivided fields of LED lighting lamps should develop, that is, compared with others, such as h05b37 / 02 (control of circuit devices for general electric light sources), f21v17 / 10 (fastening of components of lighting device), f21v17 / 00 (components of lighting device), f21v31 / 00 (functional features of lighting device or its system or gas or water-proof devices of parts), the development potential of small fields is relatively large. Therefore, if the technology of LED lamps belongs to a unique field, the patent layout in this field can be considered.

From another point of view, the R & D investment and patent layout of LED lighting lamps in intelligent control are relatively small. Intelligent lighting is the future development direction of LED lamps. One button switch, longitude and latitude control switch lamps to adjust the brightness of light... Intelligent lighting enables cities to have beautiful night scenery and reduce human and material expenditure and energy waste. Therefore, many large Enterprises have begun to compete for this piece of cake. They can refer to their relevant patent layout and route to choose a layout suitable for their own development.

Finally, the first priority of the LED industry is to realize lighting energy conservation, which cannot be changed. As a green, energy-saving and low-carbon light source, compared with traditional lighting methods, LED lamps have the greatest advantages. Under the same brightness, the energy consumption accounts for only 1 / 3 to 1 / 6 of fluorescent lamps, and its service life is 5 to 10 times that of fluorescent lamps. Nevertheless, with the development of application and With the increase of area and high brightness broadcasting, the power consumption can not be underestimated. Therefore, led enterprises still need to lay out patents from the technical level to make their products more energy-saving and reduce the economic burden of advertising owners, so as to occupy a certain market share. At the same time, from relevant authoritative data, once led lighting products form an "explosive" Growth, popularization and promotion to the medium, high and low end can save China about the power generated by one Three Gorges power station every year.

Looking at the patent layout of many led enterprises, the patent layout planning of enterprises can be divided into three time stages: short, medium and long-term:

(1) Short term patent layout planning

The main task of short-term patent layout is to provide patent protection for upcoming LED products, mine patents for various technical achievements in product development, make key deployment on its advantageous technical points, and complete the established patent application volume index; at the same time, cooperate with the medium and long-term development plan of the enterprise, implement the medium and long-term patent layout, and pay attention to the next generation of products Start the laying of basic patent protection points.

During this period, a large number of patent applications were rapidly accumulated in various technical points. By maintaining a certain number of patent applications and reserves, the enterprise's patent database was initially established to provide necessary intellectual property support and guarantee for the business expansion of the enterprise, so as to avoid large patent risks. In addition, while ensuring the quantity, we should not relax the requirements for quality. We should be conscious Pay more attention to the matching of patents with different protection themes and protection contents, so as to lay a foundation for the realization of patent combination.

(2) Medium term patent layout planning

The main task of the medium-term patent layout is to complete the phased layout objectives in combination with the medium-term product planning and commercial development of led enterprises and the patent application status of competitors, preliminarily complete the protective patent layout, antagonistic patent layout and / or reserve patent layout according to the needs, and form a certain number of patent combinations.

At this stage, patent application is a "quantity" and "quality" With equal emphasis on the process, the number of applications will generally tend to grow steadily, and the growth rate is basically consistent with the average growth rate of the industry. The purpose is to continuously improve and consolidate the formed patent library, improve the coverage of patents in products, technologies and market regions, further optimize the structural distribution of patents and improve the quality of patents.

(3) Long term patent layout planning

The main task of long-term patent layout planning is to support the future market development of the enterprise in accordance with the enterprise's long-term business development strategy, product planning route and patent positioning. Generally speaking, the long-term patent layout planning of led enterprises should pay more attention to improving the overall value of patents. At this stage, the enterprise's patent reserves have reached a certain quantity, scale and structural distribution , with certain patent strength and even advantageous position in some fields, enterprises often begin to pay more attention to the following contents:

â—‡ promotion of patent application value and effective control of patent cost;

â—‡ carry out patent operation and obtain additional income;

â—‡ rely on the control of the patent industry and actively promote the effective combination of their own patents and standards;

â—‡ on the premise of maintaining its patent dominant position and confrontation ability, optimize the structure of the patent portfolio and consciously remove the redundancy in the patent library.

At this stage, enterprises can consider giving up or transferring patents with low value. Moreover, based on their own economic strength and the growth of patent strength, enterprises can often take more diversified ways to improve their patent layout and supplement the patent composition in their patent portfolio, such as cross licensing, purchase and forming strategic alliances with peer enterprises Type.

As for the patent layout, many teachers and celebrities in the industry are talking about it, and many enterprises are asking how to layout or implement the patent layout in an exploratory way. Everyone is feeling the stone to cross the river. The patent layout is definitely not a single way, but an all-round and multi-path design. It belongs to the enterprise, "all roads lead to Rome" , enterprises must have a horizontal and vertical way of thinking about patents, with width and depth. Let enterprises take more "detours" on the road of patents and less detours in product planning, layout, R & D and design, or the layout in front can only belong to their own way. Even if they don't go, they won't let others go easily.

HOT PRODUCTS
sin datos
GET IN TOUCH WITH US
Artículos recomendados
What Is the Principle of Solar LED Lighting System
Solar energy is the most direct, universal and clean energy on the earth. As a huge amount of renewable energy, the radiant energy reaching the earth's surface every day is about 250 million barrels of oil, which can be said to be inexhaustible. Almost all the spectra of LEDs are concentrated in the visible frequency band, so the luminous efficiency is high. Most people believe that energy-saving lamps can save 4 / 5 energy, which is a great innovation, but LEDs can save 1 / 4 energy than energy-saving lamps, which is a greater reform of solid-state light sources.Solar LED lighting integrates the advantages of solar energy and led.1. Brief introduction and working principle of solar LED lighting systemThe system is composed of solar cell module (including support), LED lamp cap, control box (with controller and battery) and lamp pole; The solar panel has a light efficiency of 127wp / m2, which is very beneficial to the wind resistance design of the system; In the lamp cap part, 1W white LED and 1W yellow LED are integrated on the printed circuit board and arranged into a dot matrix with a certain spacing as the plane light source.The control box is made of stainless steel, beautiful and durable; Maintenance free lead-acid battery and charge discharge controller are placed in the control box. The valve regulated sealed lead-acid battery is selected for the system. Because it has little maintenance, it is also called "maintenance free battery", which is conducive to the reduction of system maintenance cost; the design of charge discharge controller takes into account the complete functions (with optical control, time control, overcharge protection, over discharge protection and reverse connection protection) and cost control, so as to achieve high cost performance.The working principle of the system is simple. The solar cell made by using the principle of photovoltaic effect receives solar radiation energy and converts it into electric energy output during the day. It is stored in the battery through the charge discharge controller. At night, when the illuminance gradually decreases to about 101ux and the open circuit voltage of the solar panel is about 4.5V, the charge discharge controller acts after detecting this voltage value to store electricity The cell discharges the lamp cap. After the battery is discharged for 8.5 hours, the charge discharge controller acts and the battery discharge ends. The main function of the charge discharge controller is to protect the battery.2. Design idea of solar LED lighting system2.1 solar cell module selectionDesign requirements: in Guangzhou, the load input voltage is 24V, the power consumption is 34.5w, the working hours are 8.5H per day, and the continuous rainy days are guaranteed for 7 days.(1) the average annual radiation in Guangzhou in recent 20 years is 107.7kcal/cm2. After simple calculation, the peak sunshine hours in Guangzhou are about 3.424h;(2) daily load power consumption = 12.2ah⑶ total charging current of required solar modules = 1.05 × twelve point two × ÷(3.424 × 0.85)=5.9AHere, the design minimum number of days between two consecutive rainy days is 20 days, 1.05 is the comprehensive loss coefficient of solar cell module system, and 0.85 is the charging efficiency of battery.(4) minimum total power of solar modules = 17.2 × 5.c=102WStandard battery modules with peak output power of 110wp and single 55wp shall be selected to ensure the normal operation of street lamp system in most cases of a year.2.2 battery selectionThe calculation of battery design capacity is simpler than the peak wattage of solar modules.According to the above calculation, the daily power consumption of load is 12.2ah. When the battery is full, it can work continuously for 7 cloudy and rainy days, plus the work in the first night, the battery capacity is:twelve point two × (7 1) = 97.6 (ah), two 12V100AH batteries can meet the requirements.2.3 solar cell module support design2.3.1 inclination designIn order to make the solar cell module receive as much solar radiation as possible in a year, we should choose an optimal inclination angle for the solar cell module.As for the discussion on the optimal inclination of solar cell module, the street lamp is used in Guangzhou, and the inclination of solar cell module support is 16 degrees.2.3.2 wind resistance design of solar LED lighting systemIn the solar street lamp system, a structural problem that needs to be paid great attention to is the wind resistance design. The wind resistance design is mainly divided into two parts, one is the wind resistance design of the battery module support, and the other is the wind resistance design of the lamp pole. The following analysis is made according to the above two parts.(1) wind resistance design of solar cell module supportAccording to the technical parameter data of the battery module manufacturer, the upwind pressure that the solar cell module can withstand is 2700pa. If the wind resistance coefficient is selected as 27m / S (equivalent to level 10 typhoon) According to the non viscous hydrodynamics, the wind pressure borne by the battery module is only 365pa. Therefore, the module itself can withstand the wind speed of 27m / s without damage. Therefore, the key to be considered in the design is the connection between the battery module support and the lamp pole.In the design of this set of street lamp system, the connection between the battery module support and the lamp pole is designed to be fixed and connected with a bolt rod.⑵ wind resistance design of street lamp poleThe parameters of street lamps are as follows:Inclination angle of battery board a = 16 °, lamp pole height = 5mDesign and select the weld width at the bottom of the lamp post δ= 4mm pole bottom od = 168mmThe surface where the weld is located is the failure surface of the lamp pole. The distance between the calculation point P of the resistance moment w of the failure surface of the lamp pole and the action line of the battery plate action load f on the lamp pole is PQ = [5000 (168 6) / tan16 °] × Sin16 ° = 1545mm = 1.545m. Therefore, the action moment of wind load on the failure surface of lamp pole M = F × 1.545。According to the design maximum allowable wind speed of 27m / s, 2 × The basic load of 30W double head solar street lamp panel is 730n. Considering the safety factor of 1.3, f = 1.3 × 730=949N。So, M = F × 1.545=949 × 1.545=1466N.m。According to mathematical derivation, the resistance moment of circular failure surface w = π × (3r2 δ 3r δ 2 δ 3)。Where R is the inner diameter of the ring, δ Is the ring width.Resistance moment of failure surface w = π × (3r2 δ 3r δ 2 δ 3)=π × (3 × eight hundred and forty-two × 43 × eighty-four × 4243)=88768mm3=88.768 × 10-6m3Stress caused by action moment of wind load on failure surface = m / w = 1466 / (88.768 × 10-6)=16.5 × 106pA=16.5MpA《215MpA215mpa is the bending strength of Q235 steel.Therefore, the weld width selected in the design meets the requirements. As long as the welding quality can be guaranteed, the wind resistance of the lamp post is no problem.2.4 solar LED lighting system controllerThe main function of solar charge discharge controller is to protect the battery. The basic functions must include overcharge protection, over discharge protection, optical control, time control and anti reverse connection.The general parameters of battery anti overcharge and over discharge protection voltage are shown in Table 1. When the battery voltage reaches the set value, the state of the circuit will be changed.In the selection of devices, at present, there are single-chip microcomputer and comparator. There are many schemes, each with its own characteristics and advantages. The corresponding scheme should be selected according to the demand characteristics of the customer group, which will not be described in detail here.2.5 surface treatment of solar LED lighting systemThis series of products adopt new electrostatic coating technology, mainly FP professional building materials coating, which can meet the requirements of customers for the coordination of product surface color and environment. At the same time, the products have high self-cleaning, strong corrosion resistance and aging resistance, and are suitable for any climatic environment. The processing process design is coating on the basis of hot-dip galvanizing, which greatly improves the product performance and reaches the most stringent aama2605.2005 Other indicators have met or exceeded the relevant requirements of GB.3. ConclusionThe overall design basically considers all links; the peak wattage selection design and battery capacity selection design of photovoltaic modules adopt the most common design method at present, and the design idea is more scientific; the wind resistance design is analyzed from the two parts of battery module support and lamp pole, and the analysis ratio is more comprehensive; the surface treatment adopts the most advanced technology; the overall structure of street lamps is simple and beautiful; The actual operation shows that the matching between each link is good.At present, the initial investment of solar LED lighting is still a major problem perplexing us. However, the light efficiency of solar cells is gradually increasing, and the price will gradually decrease. Similarly, the light efficiency of LED in the market is rapidly increasing, but the price is decreasing. Compared with the renewable, clean and pollution-free of solar energy and the environmental protection and energy saving of LED, conventional fossil energy is becoming more and more tense, and Therefore, solar LED lighting, as an emerging outdoor lighting, will show us infinite vitality and broad prospects.
Improve HB LED Lighting Efficiency Through Primary End Adjustment
High brightness light emitting diode (HBLED) is a kind of high-power and high brightness LED. It has longer service life, smaller size and flexible design. It has become an alternative to traditional incandescent lamps and halogen lamps.High brightness LED Driver with primary end adjustment controllerAs mentioned above, LED lighting has many advantages, but without appropriate voltage and accurate current, the life of these devices will not only shorten, but also increase their power consumption and heat consumption, resulting in irreparable damage to the LED. Therefore, the current of LED is very important for lighting. For this reason, PSR with excellent constant current technology is both important and beneficial to the life of HB-LED.In the traditional LED control circuit, the off-line constant output current LED driver can be realized by using the isolated flyback converter and the secondary end circuit to adjust the output current, as shown in Fig. 1. This scheme can provide accurate current control, but the disadvantage is that the number of devices is large, which means that larger on-board space, higher cost and lower reliability are required. At the same time, the inductive resistance ro will also increase the power consumption and reduce the efficiency of constant current regulating power supply. Recently, the efficiency and energy saving requirements of LED drivers have become more and more important. At the same time, LED applications also need smaller size, so the traditional circuits no longer meet the relevant requirements. This paper will introduce a primary end control method which can reduce the number of devices and improve efficiency.Primary end regulation (PSR) technology is the best solution to minimize the cost of offline LED driver. It can provide accurate current control without using optocouplers at the secondary end. The basic principle of PSR is to use an innovative method to detect the output information by replacing the optocoupler at the secondary end with an auxiliary coil, as shown in Figure 2. Fig. 2 shows the basic circuit diagram and main working waveforms of a flyback converter using a primary end controller.When the PSR controller turns on the MOSFET, the transformer current IP will increase linearly from zero to ipk, as shown in equation (1). During conduction, energy is stored in the transformer. When the MOSFET is off (toff), the energy stored in the transformer is transmitted to the output of the power converter through the output rectifier. During this period, the output voltage Vo and the forward voltage VF of the diode are reflected to the auxiliary coil naux, and the voltage on the auxiliary coil naux can be represented by equation (2). At this time, a proprietary sampling technology can be used to sample the reflected voltage. Since the forward voltage of the output rectifier becomes constant, the relevant output voltage information can be obtained. Then, the sampled voltage is compared with the accurate reference voltage to form a voltage loop, so as to determine the on time of MOSFET and accurately adjust the constant output voltage.In this formula, LP is the inductance of the primary coil of the transformer; Vin is the input voltage of the transformer; Ton is the on time of MOSFET; Naux / NS is the turn ratio of auxiliary coil to secondary output coil; VO is the output voltage; VF is the forward voltage of the output rectifier.This sampling scheme also doubles the discharge time (TDIS) of the transformer. As shown in Fig. 2, the output current IO is related to the secondary terminal current of the transformer. IO can also be obtained by ipk and TDIS, as shown in equation (3). The PSR controller uses this result to determine the on time of the MOSFET and adjust the constant output current. Sense resistor RSENSE is used to adjust the value of output current.Here, TS is the switching cycle of the PSR controller; NP / NS is the turn ratio of primary coil and secondary output coil; RSENSE is the sensing resistance, which converts the switching current of the transformer into voltage VCs.Using PSR controller to realize HB LED driverHere, an HB LED driver is used to drive three HB LEDs in series, and the output specification is 12V / 0.35A. If the PSR controller fsez1016a integrating a PSR controller and a 600V / 1A MOSFET is adopted, it will help to reduce the number of external components, reduce PCB area, reduce power consumption and signal noise on MOSFET Driver circuit, and reduce interference. The proprietary green mode function can provide non conduction time modulation under light load and no load conditions to linearly reduce PWM frequency and minimize standby power consumption, so as to easily meet the requirements of most green specifications. In addition, its built-in frequency buffeting function further improves EMI performance.Experiments show that with this method, the regulation accuracy of constant current (CC) can reach 1.8%, and the fold back voltage is 4V (as shown in Figure 3), which is suitable for a large VDD range, and the CC capacity is related to the output voltage. The efficiency is 77.66% at 115VAC input, 77.40% at 230VAC input, and the maximum power at no-load is 0.115w. Thus, a lighting solution with the least external components and the lowest cost can be obtained by using fsez1016a.epilogueIn order to improve the capability of HBLED, the control circuit must use constant current to realize LED driving. The patented technology of "primary end regulation" (PSR) introduced in this paper can accurately adjust the voltage and current of LED driver in the primary end of transformer only through PSR controller, without secondary end feedback circuit, so as to realize products with smaller size, longer service life and more environmental protection. Experiments show that PSR can provide 1.8% constant current (CC) regulation accuracy. The efficiency is 77.66% at 115VAC input, 77.40% at 230VAC input, and the maximum power at no-load is 0.115w. This PSR technology is the best solution to reduce the cost of offline LED driver.
Analysis of Three Reasons Why LED Lights still Emit Weak Light After Power Failure
After incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, LED lamps with low power consumption, high brightness and small volume have become the protagonist in the current home lighting market. However, in real life, many residents and electricians reflect that led lights still emit weak light after the lighting switch is turned off, which not only affects normal use, but also makes people worry about safety. Today, the author will share with you the three reasons for this phenomenon.It should be emphasized that the light-emitting element in LED lighting lamps - LED semiconductor light-emitting diode device is a very sensitive device to current. Please keep this remarkable feature of LED lamps in mind in order to understand the following cause analysis. First of all, the reason why LED lamps still emit low light after power failure is caused by the lighting switch being controlled as zero line (normally specified as live line), which accounts for nearly half of the reasons for this phenomenon!When the lighting switch controls the zero line instead of the live line, because the LED lamp is always in the charged state, the induction phenomenon is easy to occur between the live line and the ground line, forming an induced current, resulting in the low light of the LED lamp! In this case, LED lamps have the common characteristics of continuous low light emission and other indoor LED lamps or at the same time (extension: fluorescent lamps will flicker after power failure in this case). As for how to deal with this fault phenomenon, I believe we all know without the author's words.Secondly, with the improvement of living standards, in order to pursue quality of life and convenience, people often choose lighting switches with indication / backlight function for night operation. But who knows, in this way, it is very easy to cause the controlled LED lamp to form a path through the embedded indication circuit of the switch after the switch is disconnected (equivalent to that the LED lamp and the switch indication circuit are connected in series to AC220V). Although the current value in the circuit is small, it is also very easy to cause low light from LED lamps! In view of this, when purchasing lighting switches with backlight indication function, you may wish to buy non electric fluorescent (commonly known as luminous) products.Finally, we should reveal the reason why LED lamps are still slightly bright after power failure. Although it is rare in practice, it is very hidden and deceptive. As emphasized above - led lamp is a semiconductor product extremely sensitive to current. If there are multiple wires of other electrical equipment around the LED lamp holder, the induced current generated between the wires will also cause the LED lamp to emit low light in the state of power failure! The simplest and effective way to deal with this situation is to tightly wrap other wires near the lamp holder with tin foil in cigarettes / gum, and eliminate this phenomenon by short-circuit shielding method.
Let's Talk About the Application of Thermal Conductive Silica Gel in LED Lighting Industry
Thermal conductive silica gel sheet is a widely used thermal conductive interface material. It is in the form of sheet, high pressure shrinkage, high reliability, high temperature resistance, excellent thermal conductivity and insulation, with viscosity on the surface, simple and convenient construction. It can be die-cut and punched according to the size and shape of heating devices.Heat conductive silica gel sheet is a kind of heat conductive medium material made by calendering with silica gel as the base material and adding various auxiliary materials such as metal oxides. It is usually called heat conductive gasket, heat conductive silica gel gasket, heat conductive silicon film, soft heat conductive gasket, heat conductive silica gel pad, etc. it is specially produced for the design scheme of using the gap to transfer heat and can fill the gap, It not only completes the heat transfer between the heating part and the heat dissipation part, but also plays the roles of insulation, shock absorption and sealing. It can meet the design requirements of miniaturization and ultra-thin equipment. It is a good heat conduction filling material with manufacturability and usability, and has a wide range of thickness and Application.Led thermal conductive silicon film is mainly used between aluminum substrate and heat sink, between aluminum substrate and shell, etc. Today, we mainly introduce the successful application of thermal conductive silica gel sheet in LED industry: there are many kinds of LED lamps. For indoor LED lamps, thermal conductive silica gel sheet with relatively low thermal conductivity is generally used, which can reduce the cost of the product and meet the needs of the product itself. For some outdoor high-power LED lamps, such as street lamps, the power is much higher than other indoor lamps, In order to better heat dissipation of lamps and improve the service life of lamps, thermal conductive silica gel sheets with relatively high thermal conductivity are generally used.The inherent viscosity of the heat-conducting silica gel sheet facilitates the construction. If the customer needs the heat-conducting silica gel sheet to have strong viscosity to replace the screw fixation, he can also choose to give one-sided or double-sided adhesive backing to the heat-conducting silica gel sheet. If the heat-conducting silica gel sheet needs to lock the screw, please remember to choose the heat-conducting silica gel sheet containing glass fiber cloth, which has the properties of anti puncture and anti tear. In short, the heat conductive silica gel sheet can be customized according to customer requirements to meet customer needs. It can be die-cut and punched according to the size and shape of heating devices.
7 Tips to Help You Sell Your Farm Fresh Eggs for More Money
The continuing trend of raising backyard chickens has had an unintended negative effect on those selling their extra eggs. Due to a steady supply of fresh eggs from backyard flocks and small local farms at markets, roadside stands and feed stores, egg prices are being kept artificially low. But there are some things you can do to help you sell your fresh eggs for a bit more money. When you begin to calculate your expenses - including egg cartons, labels, business cards, feed, supplements, supplies, the chickens themselves, plus their coop and run, not to mention a little something for your time, and gas to get to the market - it's often hard to sell a dozen eggs for a high enough price to simply break even. Many times, local eggs are sold for about the same price as store-bought eggs, despite being fresher and more nutritious AND laid by happy hens. And when you sell your eggs, you are not only competing against the low grocery-store prices, but also against other local sellers. Studies have shown that buyers will more likely make a purchase when you engage more than one of their senses. So by enticing potential shoppers' sense of touch, sight, sound and possibly even taste, you have a better chance at making that sale. Here are some tips to engage the senses, get your eggs to stand out from the crowd and possibly even fetch a premium price. If you are selling at a farmers' market or fair, crack an egg into a bowl to show potential buyers how great your eggs look. Eggs from chickens that eat a lot of herbs, grass and weeds will naturally have more vibrant yolks and look fresher than store-bought eggs from caged chickens. But you can bump up the wow factor of your chickens' egg yolks even more by feeding foods high in xanthophyll, a carotenoid with a naturally orange pigment. Some foods rich in xanthophyll include basil, carrots, corn, marigolds, parsley, pumpkin, red cabbage and the leaves of most green plants. Adding a pop of color to your cartons can entice buyers to your table. Raise some chickens that lay blue, green or cream-colored eggs to create some eye candy in your cartons! Chicken eggs can be a dime a dozen because of the large supply available, but there are other types of poultry that lay eggs. Duck eggs are larger than chicken eggs and thought to be to be better for baking due to their higher fat content. Tiny quail eggs are considered a delicacy and are often pickled or used by five-star chefs to top burgers or salads due to their smaller size and relative rarity. There might also be a market for turkey and goose eggs in your area - and you will likely be able to set your own price. Studies show that someone is more likely to purchase an item if they have touched or held it. Consider putting out a basket of eggs on your table and handing an egg to anyone who stops at your table. Give out free samples - let people take home an egg to try it for themselves. Hopefully, that will compel them to come back the next week to buy - if they do not buy a dozen eggs on the spot. Make your packaging unique. Instead of simply packaging your eggs in cartons and stacking them on the table, why not tie a pretty ribbon or some baker's twine around the carton and attach a wildflower or sprig of herbs? Maybe even tuck a simple egg recipe in. Or fill large baskets or metal pails with eggs and let your buyers hand select a dozen to put in their carton. And do not forget to pass out business cards. Sending each customer away with your contact information is a must to make it easy for them to locate you when they are ready to reorder. Studies have shown that chickens raised on pasture produce more nutritious eggs than chickens that never see the light of day or step foot on grass. Pasture-raised chickens have access to a more diverse diet, including a variety of forages and insects, which can lead to increased levels of vitamins A and E and omega-3 fatty acids. Other studies have shown that chickens raised on grass lay eggs that are lower in cholesterol than those raised on a commercial feed-only diet. Share this information with your potential customers by printing out a nutritional comparison on cards or handouts that they can take home with them - and be sure the handout has your contact information on it too! If possible, play a recording of chickens softly clucking with an occasional rooster crowing at your booth. The sound of happy chickens in the background will work to engage yet another sense and hopefully give your buyers the urge to bring home some farm fresh eggs! And back to sight for a minute, photographs of your chickens or a large poster showing them happily roaming a field can help reinforce the positive image of your farm and your eggs - you are putting faces and even names to the producers! Using a little creativity will give you a leg up on your competition and hopefully fetch higher prices for your delicious, fresh eggs! Also check your state Department of Agriculture's egg laws or cottage-food regulations, so you are aware of egg grading, handling and storing requirements, rules about the reuse of cartons and carton labeling regulations - including the use of such terms as organic, free-range and pasture-raised. Your local extension service should be able to point you in the right direction to get that information or you can find it online. Egg laws vary state by state.Where do they sell jacuzzi?Jacuzzis R us Sells pretty good ones ay low prices Or craigslist Has one for free in LA Go quick
Need Help Finding Kitchen Items and Sofa?
The daybed and the island appear custom made to me. Any of the kitchen redesigners should be able to replicate the island without difficulty. The "tiles" on the floor are flagstone and any slab or rock yard has them, but to use on subflooring you need them guaged so that they all lay even. You really should go to a granite yard to look at the slabs because every yard calls their granite colors by something different with a few exceptions that are industry wide (like absolute black granite because it comes from only one mine in India)1. dog urine on my sofa?I just bought this product last week. It takes EVERYTHING out. It's called Folex and you can find it at Walmart. It's cheap too2. Is my sofa ruined? Help!?!?Just in case scratch it all over. Apply the oil to make it match. This is creativity. You just might like the new look3. Bernhardt sofa back support fallen off internally. Springs OK. Any ideas how to fix the sofa?Well, hubby fixed ours by opening it up, finding the broken piece and replacing it with fresh wood and screws and like the guy earlier stated, problem solve--then he used his staple gun to put the upholstery back in place. Worked quite well and looked professional4. Is buying a sofa from Walmart a good idea?Well even Target does not sell quality furniture. We bought a 5 piece dining room table a year ago and it's scratched up. We do not use it daily, it definitely was not worth $225 and likely can not sell it. I would suggest Garage Sale, Estate Sales, Dock 86, Secondhand shops, or Slumberland had a pretty decent sale on the July 4th, I am sure they will have a great sales weekend Labor Day, We bought a chocolate chenille couch for $580 normally $900. Free Delievry.5. how can i get rid of an unwanted sofa?Place it for free on the Craiglist in the free items section. Depending on where you live someone will be there in a snap to pick it up. If you have a digital camera take pictures also and upload them on the listing. Good Luck.6. How can I save my sofa?Get a strong piece of plywood and cover it with foam batting and stick it underneath the couch cushions. It should give enough support until you can replace it. Congrats on the new home.7. how to get candle wax out of upholstry [ sofa ] ?ummm...sarah has a point...but with something that is as fragile as micro-fiber I think personally I would allow the wax to completely harden and pull up as many pieces as I could as carefully as I could . Just so you do not over stretch the fabirc and cause raised spots. you could gently scrape away the rest. If there is still some in the couch...look up the manufacturers recommendations with water. If its okay with water, then use an ice cube to freeze more of it off. Or, you could even just put the ice in a ziplock bag and just do it that way. I would not take an iron to the couch...microfiber is a bit too satin-y for that. Just work slowly and carefully...and keep at it. Good luck.8. How to make Sofa seats "higher"?You could raise the sofa by placing concrete blocks under all 4 corners. Then get some boards & cover them in fabric or paint them or stain them & place them like a "skirt" under the 3 sides of the sofa. You could even give it an industrial look by using metal sheets or gridwork. As for the cushions, you do not say if they are attached or loose. If they are loose, hopefully they are zippered. In which case you will go to a fabric store & buy some dacron sheets & wrap the cushions with the sheets using a spray glue so it does not shift. Use a dry cleaning bag over the cushion to get it to slide easily back into the cover. Using dacron will probably be a lot less expensive than buying new foam cores, but look into that also - just find an upholstery outlet in your area. You can also just put boards under your cushions, but that will just feel firm, not more comfortable. If your cushions are attached there is not much you can do. You can always look for a sofa on craigslist, but just be sure that you disinfect it.
Can I Heat an Outside Chicken Coop with an Underground Heating System?
Can I heat an outside chicken coop with an underground heating system?go too: Heatinghelp.com (it might be .net or ? but try that) You want to find a place called, "The Wall" it is a place just like this where you can post your question. Simply: Yes you can.. but it depends on your heat source to heat the water? Existing boiler? Wood stove etc... I think it would be a great idea to do. YOu could even run a line under their nests if they are off the ground... not too hot now.. just enough to warm the toosh on those reall cold nights! I have seen dog houses heated etc.... You can use Pex pipe, circulator, expansion tank... basic fittings... you will have too have a basic knowledge to put it together and you can find the information at that sight. Just incase they have changed another search point or name would be: Dan Holohan, Hydronic heat, Wethead,,,,, any one of those should pull his site up. Good luck, great idea... it may cost a bit but why not ..— — — — — —What Is a Radiant Floor Heating System?Radiant heat is not exactly a new idea. Turkish and Roman baths were often constructed on raised floors so warm air could circulate underneath and keep things comfortable. Incorporating radiant heating systems into modern dwellings did not become popular, however, until the mid 20th century. Radiant heat has many advantages over other central heat systems, such as forced air, but installation cost is not one of them, especially if you want to add radiant heat to an existing structure. This can be an expensive alternative. However, radiant heat can be one of the most environmentally friendly heating options when used in conjunction with solar heating panels. What Is Radiant Heat? Hydroponic Radiant Floors Unlike in a Turkish bath, the radiant heat in a modern system comes from pipes or electric heating elements embedded in the floor or installed in the joists underneath. In a hydronic system, water circulates through a boiler, which maintains it at a temperature warm enough to heat the floor. This type of system is less costly to operate than an electric system, especially if you supplement the energy source needed to heat the water by using solar panels. The pipes that carry the heated water in a hydronic system are often embedded in concrete, because concrete is a good thermal conductor. The pipes in older systems are usually copper, but newer systems employ polyethylene (PEX) tubing, which is more versatile and easier to install. PEX tubing can even be installed in existing joists, so it is possible to have radiant heat under your hardwood or tile floor without having to tear it up. Electric Radiant Heat The elements in an electric radiant heat system are typically embedded in mats that go between the subfloor and the floor covering. The best time to install these is when you are replacing the floor covering. If your floor is not due for replacement anytime soon, you can also buy mats that fit between the joists and install them from underneath the floor. Three Types of Hydronic Systems You can choose from three different hydronic heating systems: closed, open or heat exchange. Closed system. The boiler is dedicated to the heating system. The main advantage of this type of system is that you can use antifreeze instead of water as the circulating fluid. Antifreeze is less corrosive than water, which is good for the boiler, and it's also more efficient at transferring heat. Open system. The boiler supplies hot water to bathrooms and kitchens as well as the heating system. You save money because you only need one water heater. Heat exchanger. A heat exchange system combines the benefits of both open and closed systems. The pipes that supply the radiant heat system pass through the main water heater, but they are sealed and usually circulate antifreeze instead of water. And you can get creative with a heat exchange system and tie it to a solar heating panel. The pipes from the panel can circulate antifreeze through the water heater as well as the floor, lowering your water heating costs while also providing heat for the house. Pros and Cons of Radiant Heat On the plus side, a radiant heating system puts the heat exactly where you need it-under your feet. As the warm air rises, the room quickly becomes uniformly and comfortably warm without the drafts and convection currents associated with forced air. Another advantage over forced air is that a radiant system has fewer moving parts. The only components you have to service are the boiler-which can double as a hot water heater for the bathroom in a pinch-and the circulation pump, which is a relatively inexpensive item. You will be happy you have radiant heat when the power goes out during a winter storm, because the floor retains heat for a few hours. The main drawback of radiant heat is its installation cost. This probably is not a problem if you are already building or renovating. But if you are not , the cost, which can approach $9.00 per square foot in a smaller house, can definitely be a factor. Another disadvantage is that a radiant heating system does not work well as a cooling system. If you need both heating and cooling, it's usually best to go with a forced air system. As far as electric radiant heat is concerned, it's best suited as a supplement to your existing heating system. It consumes too much electricity to make it practical as a stand-alone heating system for the entire home. Compatible Floor Coverings Not all floor coverings conduct heat well enough to work with radiant heating systems. The best choice is ceramic tile, which conducts heat as well as concrete. Laminate and stone flooring, as well as solid and engineered hardwood, are also suitable. Carpeting and vinyl flooring, however, are not good choices. These materials are poor conductors of heat, and are more likely to trap heat than to allow it to radiate into the room. Should I Go with Radiant Heat? If you are building a new house or you are considering a major renovation, radiant heat should definitely be on your list of options, particularly if the house has high ceilings. The best time to install a radiant heat system is when you are building the floors. Adding radiant heat to an existing structure is more labor-intensive and expensive, but it might make sense if you already have a large, underused water heater in good condition. Keep in mind that you do not need radiant heat in every room. You will probably want it in the bedrooms, bathrooms and living room, but hallways, closets and laundry rooms do not need the extra warmth. If you are on the fence, you can always give radiant heat a test run by purchasing an under-carpet heating mat. This provides the same type of warmth you would get from an actual radiant heating system, and the installation costs are zero.
How Can I Get My Foundation Brush Clean?
You will need not just water but also facial foam as well. Apply a dab of your usual facial wash to your palm and swish the wet brush in the hand in circles. You will see the facial foam changing colour to your foundation. Keep adding and washing off the facial wash until the water runs clear. Leave your brush to dry overnight naturally1. best MAC foundation brush that.....?150. It's fluffy enough to actually pick up the powder and be gentle on your face, but it's dense enough to actually deposit color without making you look like you just dunked your face in a bowl of powder. I totally feel where you are coming from here. I had a 187 and a kabuki brush for a really long time, so if I needed that medium amount of coverage, I was kind of screwed. Haha, for a while, I would use my kabuki, but only put powder on half of it. It worked pretty well, if you want to give that a try. But then I bought a 150, and it's just about all I use now. I use my 187 for Mineralize skinfinishes and blush now. Hope this helps!2. Please answer! How do I apply liquid foundation with an essence of beauty foundation brush without streaks?That results in streaks. You need to use a light hand. Use a feathary technique3. Does anyone know a good foundation brush?Mac has some good brushes and why dont you just check em out over line and get the prices4. How do you apply foundation with a brush on forehead?If you are using liquid foundation, one way to do it would be to dot your forhead with foundation and blend it in a downward motion to your nose. Make sure to use light steady strokes of the foundation brush. I hope you like this method and hope it works out for you.5. I have 2 URGENT questions....?1) It would probably be best if you did not . Lip gloss stays gooey and it might run into your eyes. Trust me, just go without until you get a new tube of mascara. 2) Basic brushes to own: Foundation brush, powder brush, blush brush, and fluffy eyeshadow brush. That should keep you covered until you decide you want to do something a bit more complex with your makeup. Good luck!6. How can I clean my MAC foundation brush?Foundation Brush Mac7. When you apply foundation with a brush does it change the coverage?Brush can give you thicker coverage whilst blending in the foundation, using your fingers you get a lighter coverage. If you decide to use a foundation brush I really like MACs 190 Brush, it is expensive put worth it.8. How do you clean a foundation brush?i use shampoo on mine as for the drying you need to blot out as much water as possilbe and then leave it to air dry. Mine are normally dry the next morning. Plus I only wash my once a week. That is what my makeup consultant told me9. Has anyone out there purchased MAC make-up?yeap..most of their items are sold separately...but sometimes(once in a blue moon,rather..) they sell it in a set...which is much much cheaper compared to wen u buy the exact items separately..(eg.studio fix foundation compact powder foundation brush - in a cute cosmetic pouch).. so u have to keep a look out for it..or call & enquire the MAC counters abt it. i dun noe if they hav it in ur country..but they hav it in Singapore. =) cheers.10. I really need a good liquid foundation brush!!?Mac brushes are the best!!11. What is the best way to apply cream makeup?I am going to disagree quite a bit here, and this is going to make sense if you use a pricey cream foundation. By using a sponge or beauty blender, you will waste quite a bit of product. My advice is to apply with clean fingers, and use a sponge, beauty blender or foundation brush to blend in the edges, if necessary.12. What's the best liquid foundation/concealer? And what's the best foundation brush?You might like this one Coastal Scents Professional Camouflage Concealer Palette. * 10 Concealers * Can be used by all ages and skin tones * Cream concealers * Very blendable
My Boyfriend Wants to Get Married? We Known Each Other for a Year?
My boyfriend wants to get married? We known each other for a year?You are a pig and you do not deserve him— — — — — —Need help with Guinea Pig.?guinea pigs are very sociable. if you arent planning on getting another, you need to be prepared to spend good quality time with this pet. right now, he sounds lonely and is stressed out because of his new home. he should get over this soon, but if not, or if he stops eating, try the vet--they may advise you to get a second, which you should do early on, before the pig is grown. Some fun things to do with a pig are feeding them treats like carrots, letting them play inside cereal boxes, taking them outside on a leash, and talking to them--most will "answer" back with happy squeaks!— — — — — —Guinea pig squeaking- good or bad?this is the sound a pig makes— — — — — —Have any of you been a compulsive eater?well i dont like finishing my food frist cause it makes me fell like a pig— — — — — —Which breed of pig is best to keep as a pet?It is never a good idea to buy a pet for another person without their knowledge or consent. They may have plans for the future that you are not aware of that do not involve owning that animal, and the animal will likely end up in a shelter. That being said, for an indoor pet, the only really practical pig to keep is a pot belly. They still get anywhere from 75 to 150 lbs, require more care and details than I could fit in this box, and live 10 to 15 years. There are smaller pigs but they are rare / endangered. A Pig will Completely tear up the garden, so she will need fencing to keep it out. She will also need dedicated outdoor space for the pig to roam around and root safely. If piggy is not allowed to root outdoors, piggy will do it indoors. Before buying a pig make sure to check local zoning ordinances for her county and state. Usually available online, at the local public library, or at the county business offices. Also before buying it find a vet in her area that will commit to treating pot belly pigs, you can not just assume the local vet will know pot belly pigs. They require vastly different medical treatment from farm pigs. Cost will Vary from location to location. Expect to pay anywhere from 50 - 200 for the pig if you buy it local, 500 to 600 plus shipping if you use an online breeder. One Bag of Food should be around 15-25 bugs at a local farm supply store and will last a few months. Pigs are social creatures but you do not need more than one pig. Mine keeps great company with our cat.— — — — — —What is the most dirtest funniest joke you have ever heard!?A pig fell in the mud— — — — — —How do I save money? ?Give it to a Pig to keep safe— — — — — —Pig IslandPig Island may refer to: Pig Island (Exuma), the Bahamas Pig Island (Newfoundland and Labrador), Canada Pig Island, New Zealand, in Lake Wakatipu Pig Island (Ottawa, Canada) Pig Island, County Down, a townland in County Down, Northern Ireland Pig Island (Queensland), Australia Pig Island (novel), a British thriller novel "Pig Island" (song), a song by Sandra Boynton and Michael Ford— — — — — —am i turning into a muslim?try first to turn from a pig to a human , then go choose a religion— — — — — —How do you make a homemade football?They used to make them out of animal bladders. Yes, like when they butchered a pig or sheep— — — — — —How do you think the Great Khali would fare as a rugby player?Good scrummager but about as fast as a pig in reverse— — — — — —Do you think this image captures the moment?i wonder if they are pig farmers happy as a pig in .— — — — — —I am thinking about getting a guinea pig and I wondered if their bite hurts?Having raised guinea pigs because i became into knee severe to a hopper, i got here across that not all pigs are going to tame down. My first journey became into with 13 of those critters and maximum all of them weeet weeet weeet each and each time I opened the crisped drawer of the refrigerator, it incredibly is using the fact they knew that i became into getting them lettus, carrots, celery. besides as feeding them a good bowl of alfala pellets that keeps to be crammed each and all of the time, they will grow to be your chum authentic rapid that way and you will maximum possibly get bored of listening to them yet. .I also have a pig right now and he will weet weet at me yet run like heck as quickly as I attitude the cage. as quickly as he's out, he will come working to me and snuggle authentic close for risk-free practices while he spooks which brings up the actuality of guinea pigs. . information.enable them to hearken to the crisper drawer and you saying the comparable element each and each time dazzling formerly you supply him that handle and he will weeet weeet weeet swifter than you would be wanting. I constantly say hereeee pig pig pig repeatedly, the full time additionally, for some reason this is not good to maintain your pig interior 20 ft of your T. V. there are sounds and tones that injury their ears and scares them. i am hoping I helped you. there is not something worse than loving something that would not love you decrease back
My Mom Won't Let Me Go to School Tomorrow?
I have never been in a situation like this but ill try. Try and see if your dad will be able to take care of you sister. If your mom wont accept that then try and reason with maybe going half of the day (you should still be able to turn in your exam reviews) and just bring a note saying why you were late (like personal reasons that usually works) if that doesnt work try talking to your dad. I mean you could always sneak out but ur mom would be really mad. Maybe tell her you cant get an A if you dont go tomorrow. Good Luck i hope you get to go. :)1. Do you think you're going to have school tomorrow?I do not have school on Wednesdays2. i want to bring my whey protein shake to school, can i just make the whey protein shake for school tomorrow?No, it is going to clump up and turn into a mud like substance. Mix it when you are ready to use it3. First day of school tomorrow, can't sleep, help please?I can never sleep the night before the first day either. But I am sure a lot of people wo not know each other at your school, and you will have no problem finding friends. I am starting high school Wednesday and I only know about five people. Whenever I can not sleep, I make a small playlist of my favorite songs and fall asleep listening to it. I use earbuds and they probably fall out as soon as I turn over, but the music distracts my mind and I pay attention to the words instead of my thoughts. Put your iPod under your pillow so it can not fall during the night. Also, use a cheap pair of headphones/earbuds in case you roll over on them or something. For me, it also helps to just envision a completely black space. Good luck! Get off the internet as soon as you read this (but after you pick this as best answer;).4. What should I wear to school tomorrow? Best for 10.?Going for a sexy-sophisticated look? You should wear a black mini skirt with no type of design so that the focus goes to your frilly, semi-colorful blouse/top. Since you are blonde, a forest green would look really great but that's just an idea. Make sure the top is sleeveless so that you can throw on a business-type of jacket which is a darker shade. Black, dark grey, purple, all depending on the shirt you chose. You can wear gladiater sandals or if you want an extra touch and you are that type of girl, nice heals. Just do not make this look like you are trying too hard. I am 14, so I understand. Good luck!! (:.5. what shall i wear to school tomorrow?you shall wear soomething very flattering...maybe some jeans a cute top & some ballet flats. You should wear your hair kind of curly with a skinny headband. That would look so cute!!.6. I've been using Tazorac (a retinoid) and my skin is peeling I have school tomorrow, how do I hide this or makeTry using a penis health creme every day. If you get a good creme containing vitamins and nutrients, you will stop that peeling in its tracks! Good luck!7. Poll: what are you gonna wear to school tomorrow?A Ramones shirt tucked into a high- waisted black skirt that has floral print with shear tights and my black booties. I will probably wear my hair down and messy, kinda like my profile pic8. What to wear to school tomorrow?dark wash skinny jeans 1 pink graphic tshirt/patriotic jerse gold sandal bracelets necklace earrings that are silver. hope this helps!9. What to wear for first day of school tomorrow?WEAR THE OPTION#1 :) FOR EYESHADOW USE LIGHT PINK U CAN STILL USED EYE SHADOW JUST B EXTRA CAREFUL N ACCESORIES A NICE BRACELET OR NICE NECKLEES UMMM RINGS BELT? CLIPS 4 UR HAIR? EARINGS ?10. What Shall I Wear To School Tomorrow?I would wear a pink tee shirt from Hollister or any other store with skinny jeans and your Real Brown UGGS. This is what I am wearing to school tomorrow!
sin datos