Can You Start a Marijuana Seedling with a 40w Led Light?

You can start it without light, but you need the proper type and amount of light for it to grow. I do not think LED lights have the correct wave length, but this is something you can look up on Google

1. Are there any LED light strips less than 12v?

No. 12V is the most common. Manufactures know that if your going to build something for the mass market, you use a voltage that your target market has most commonly available

2. How do you connect an LED light to a par?

poorly asked questiona par of what?Ok, Par, is short hand for "Parabolic Reflector".So, if you had reflector, you would need to know where , and what angle to make the beam converge at

3. Wiring an RGB led light array

You seem to have a few wrong ideas:1) RGB LEDs are a good idea here.Nope. Sorry. If you use RGBs, you will be stuck with providing 3 current limiting resistors per LED. That will be 300 for your setup. If you will just take by word for it, common cathode and common anode is not a useful question. So let's assume constant anode. Then your 2 LEDs will look likesimulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabNote that you cannot connect them in series, since this will short all three cathodes to the preceding common anode. Since the three colors have different operating voltages, all will be clamped by the red, and the green and blue will never turn on. If you try to connect the anode of one to a single cathode of another, the entire current from the three will be forced through the single. 2) You think you can use a single power supply.Well, you can, but you need to think this through.simulate this circuitIn this case a reasonable value for V1 might be about 5 volts - at 6 amps, and you will need 300 resistors. Not only that, the resistors for each color will have to be different if you want the same current through each LED.If you go to single LEDs, you can connect them in seriessimulate this circuitand now V1 can be something like 8 or 9 volts at 3 amps. Again, the resistor values for each color will need to be different to get the same current in each. Of course, if you want to reduce the number of resistor values, you can mix your colors in series, with each string being a multiple of 3 long.simulate this circuitSince each string has one of each color, the voltage across each string will be the same for the same current, and you can use a common resistor value.And you can now string your LEDs into longer strings. The longer the string, the more voltage and less current you need. For a single supply, the maximum voltage needed will be about (n x 3.2) 2 or 3 volts, where n is the number of LEDs in series. In the extreme case, you could have 3 strings of 100 LEDs, with a V1 of somewhere over 320 volts, but only needing 60 mA. But I would not recommend that

4. how do you wire a 12 volt flexible led light strip to a 12 volt motorcycle battery?

Very simple man, positives to negatives. Attach your neg wire to your frame by a bolt, and your positive, to the positive terminal of your battery. Toggle switch in the middle of the positive line and your good to go

5. making a led light show out of fuze bottles?

Whether they want to be approached, or left alone is usually the difference between approachable and not approachable. Anybody could be approached in a hypothetical situation, not all situations are hypothetical though. Most people pick up on when somebody wants to be left alone, and when they feel like approaching people, they usually let people know by approaching people.

6. Do you need a led lamp for led light bulb?

hard situation. do a search at google or bing. this can assist!

7. I need LED light strings to sew on a costume. Anyone know where to buy them online?

Costume Led Lights

8. Sparco Spc1691bksv Wheel Covers Lazio 16-Inch Black/Silver

Quality is our ultimate goal, we are committed to become a reliable supplier for Velvet Knot Cushion Reversible Sequin Cushion and achieve a win-win situation. We are sincerely looking forward to establishing business relationships with friends from at home and abroad. Our company is committed to the research of corporate culture and the update of production technology, With LED light,and very beautiful when it glows at night Soft and durable decoration for both indoors (living room, office,bedroom,etc.), and outdoors (patio,car etc.) Very beautiful and unique design, made of environmentally friendly material, easy to clean, wear-resisting and durable. 1 Q: Are you a factory or trading company? A: We are a factory in Hangzhou,China .We are professional manufacturer 0ver 18 years experience. 2.We have professional design and development team, and have more than hundreds of new designs each year 3. Q: Can you add our own logo on the products? Can you design specially for us? A: Yes. We offer the service of adding customers' logo. And we have our own professional designer team.We have complete service. A: Yes. For big order and old Customers, we give reasonable discounts. 5. Q: How can you guarantee your quality? A: We have quality control department, every order has quality control by us.We guarantee good quality of products 6. Q: Why are your price the best? A: We have been in this field for long time and have hundreds of good partners.

sin datos
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Domestic LED Lighting Lamp Patent Status and Top Ten Applications
The LED lighting industry has indeed developed rapidly in recent years, especially in the field of downstream applications, especially in Guangdong Province. However, after the rapid development and expansion, patents have increasingly become the bottleneck for the further development of led enterprises. Therefore, it will not be too late for the patent layout of enterprises to be done at any time, in any place and in any way.In short, patent layout is the overall goal of the enterprise's patent layout in a certain period of time in the future, and further make specific plans for each layout stage according to the enterprise's development plan to determine the patent layout tasks and measures at each stage; In each implementation stage, the Patent Management Department of the enterprise also needs to put forward more specific indicators for the number and structure of patent layout. In addition, in the implementation process, the enterprise also needs to investigate the layout plan in combination with the implementation of the patent layout plan, the adjustment of the enterprise development plan, and the changes of the external technology, industry and market environment.First, let's understand the basic situation of LED lighting lamps:LED lighting fixture is a general term of LED lamps, which refers to the appliances that can transmit light, distribute and change the light distribution of LED light source, including all parts and components required for fixing and protecting LED light source except LED light source, as well as line accessories necessary for power connection. In short, it is composed of LED light source, radiator, lamp shell, driving power supply, support, necessary circuit auxiliary devices and measures to connect them with power supply. In the 21st century, the design of room lamps and lanterns will take the design of LED lamps and lanterns as the mainstream, fully reflect the lighting development trend of energy conservation, health, artistry and humanization, and become the leading of room lighting culture.At present, the problems perplexing LED lighting technology are as follows:1. Domestic enterprises have no core technologyMost of the core patents in the upstream of the LED industry are in the hands of foreign companies. We do not master the core technology in China. Although the manufacturing capacity of our LED application products accounts for 50% and 50% in the world, it is the lowest link in the profit link. The cost of LED lighting lamps mainly lies in the LED chip. As long as the chip price is reduced, the lumen unit price of LED can be reduced to the same as that of energy-saving lamps at this stage. As the production process of LED chips with larger size wafers increases with the process and quantity, the cost will continue to be reduced. In recent years, the speed is reduced by 20% every year. In the price factor of LED chips, the improvement of light efficiency should also be included in the price reduction. Better products are purchased at the same price, so there is still much room for price reduction of LED chips.2. Difficult heat dissipation of LED application productsThe heat dissipation cost should be maintained at 5%. The actual heat dissipation design is very simple. Hold two directions: first, the shorter the path between the LED chip and the external radiator, the better your heat dissipation design; Second, the heat dissipation resistance is to have enough heat dissipation transmission paths and enough "heat dissipation roads". This part of the cost is mainly in the structure. The structural design accounts for about 20% of the lamps, and the cost for heat dissipation is not much. Now the biggest problem is how to achieve more innovative and reasonable structural design.3. LED application power supplyPower supply is the weakest link of LED lighting, which restricts the development of LED lighting. Now the design accounts for about 20% of the cost of LED lighting lamps, which is somewhat high. With the development of technology, the power supply is about 5-10%. Compared with other light sources in the afterlife, the current cost of LED light source is not high, especially led environmental protection, energy saving and mercury free. Moreover, the price of LED lighting lamps is sliding down every quarter. In a short time, the price of LED lighting lamps must reach an acceptable level.Let's take another look at the patent profile of the LED industry:Patent application disclosure trend:The national LED lighting lamps started in 2000 and reached a high peak from 2013 to 2015. It can be seen that led enterprises are stepping up their patent applications.The first four segments focus on:F21y101 / 02 miniature light sourceF21s2 / 00 lighting systemF21v29 / 00 cooling or heating deviceF21v19 / 00 fixing of light source or lamp holderIt can be seen that domestic LED lighting lamps are concentrated in light source, lighting system, heat dissipation and structure, and there are many patent layouts of fixed devices.Let's take another look at the application of the top 10 LED lamps in China:The technical layout of domestic led enterprises in the research and development of LED lighting lamps will be weaker than that in the upstream, but this will not become an obstacle to the demand of downstream enterprises. From the simple analysis of the above figure, it can be seen that the subdivided fields of LED lighting lamps should develop, that is, compared with others, such as h05b37 / 02 (control of circuit devices for general electric light sources), f21v17 / 10 (fastening of components of lighting device), f21v17 / 00 (components of lighting device), f21v31 / 00 (functional features of lighting device or its system or gas or water-proof devices of parts), the development potential of small fields is relatively large. Therefore, if the technology of LED lamps belongs to a unique field, the patent layout in this field can be considered.From another point of view, the R & D investment and patent layout of LED lighting lamps in intelligent control are relatively small. Intelligent lighting is the future development direction of LED lamps. One button switch, longitude and latitude control switch lamps to adjust the brightness of light... Intelligent lighting enables cities to have beautiful night scenery and reduce human and material expenditure and energy waste. Therefore, many large Enterprises have begun to compete for this piece of cake. They can refer to their relevant patent layout and route to choose a layout suitable for their own development.Finally, the first priority of the LED industry is to realize lighting energy conservation, which cannot be changed. As a green, energy-saving and low-carbon light source, compared with traditional lighting methods, LED lamps have the greatest advantages. Under the same brightness, the energy consumption accounts for only 1 / 3 to 1 / 6 of fluorescent lamps, and its service life is 5 to 10 times that of fluorescent lamps. Nevertheless, with the development of application and With the increase of area and high brightness broadcasting, the power consumption can not be underestimated. Therefore, led enterprises still need to lay out patents from the technical level to make their products more energy-saving and reduce the economic burden of advertising owners, so as to occupy a certain market share. At the same time, from relevant authoritative data, once led lighting products form an "explosive" Growth, popularization and promotion to the medium, high and low end can save China about the power generated by one Three Gorges power station every year.Looking at the patent layout of many led enterprises, the patent layout planning of enterprises can be divided into three time stages: short, medium and long-term:(1) Short term patent layout planningThe main task of short-term patent layout is to provide patent protection for upcoming LED products, mine patents for various technical achievements in product development, make key deployment on its advantageous technical points, and complete the established patent application volume index; at the same time, cooperate with the medium and long-term development plan of the enterprise, implement the medium and long-term patent layout, and pay attention to the next generation of products Start the laying of basic patent protection points.During this period, a large number of patent applications were rapidly accumulated in various technical points. By maintaining a certain number of patent applications and reserves, the enterprise's patent database was initially established to provide necessary intellectual property support and guarantee for the business expansion of the enterprise, so as to avoid large patent risks. In addition, while ensuring the quantity, we should not relax the requirements for quality. We should be conscious Pay more attention to the matching of patents with different protection themes and protection contents, so as to lay a foundation for the realization of patent combination.(2) Medium term patent layout planningThe main task of the medium-term patent layout is to complete the phased layout objectives in combination with the medium-term product planning and commercial development of led enterprises and the patent application status of competitors, preliminarily complete the protective patent layout, antagonistic patent layout and / or reserve patent layout according to the needs, and form a certain number of patent combinations.At this stage, patent application is a "quantity" and "quality" With equal emphasis on the process, the number of applications will generally tend to grow steadily, and the growth rate is basically consistent with the average growth rate of the industry. The purpose is to continuously improve and consolidate the formed patent library, improve the coverage of patents in products, technologies and market regions, further optimize the structural distribution of patents and improve the quality of patents.(3) Long term patent layout planningThe main task of long-term patent layout planning is to support the future market development of the enterprise in accordance with the enterprise's long-term business development strategy, product planning route and patent positioning. Generally speaking, the long-term patent layout planning of led enterprises should pay more attention to improving the overall value of patents. At this stage, the enterprise's patent reserves have reached a certain quantity, scale and structural distribution , with certain patent strength and even advantageous position in some fields, enterprises often begin to pay more attention to the following contents:â—‡ promotion of patent application value and effective control of patent cost;â—‡ carry out patent operation and obtain additional income;â—‡ rely on the control of the patent industry and actively promote the effective combination of their own patents and standards;â—‡ on the premise of maintaining its patent dominant position and confrontation ability, optimize the structure of the patent portfolio and consciously remove the redundancy in the patent library.At this stage, enterprises can consider giving up or transferring patents with low value. Moreover, based on their own economic strength and the growth of patent strength, enterprises can often take more diversified ways to improve their patent layout and supplement the patent composition in their patent portfolio, such as cross licensing, purchase and forming strategic alliances with peer enterprises Type.As for the patent layout, many teachers and celebrities in the industry are talking about it, and many enterprises are asking how to layout or implement the patent layout in an exploratory way. Everyone is feeling the stone to cross the river. The patent layout is definitely not a single way, but an all-round and multi-path design. It belongs to the enterprise, "all roads lead to Rome" , enterprises must have a horizontal and vertical way of thinking about patents, with width and depth. Let enterprises take more "detours" on the road of patents and less detours in product planning, layout, R & D and design, or the layout in front can only belong to their own way. Even if they don't go, they won't let others go easily.
How to Decorate Using LED Light Strips | LEDwatcher
How to decorate using LED light strips | LEDwatcherIf you are really into using LED light strips to decorate your home but are having a hard time to see creative ways to make your own house pop with these lights then we have a solution for you. There are plenty of interesting ways that you can use LED lights in your home to make your life easier or even create a beautiful and attractive environment around you. On top of that, LED lights are cheap and easy to put up mean that you can have lots of fun while decorating. And even people who are not that great with technology can install LED lights in their homes because it is not that hard to do. So keep on reading to get some great ideas for decorating your home with LED lights. LED lights are great for making abnormally dark areas more inviting. For example, you may not like walking outside after dark too much especially if you live in a secluded area. So by installing LED lights around your home, you can make the surrounding area of your home brighter, lighter and less scary. You can also easily keep the LED lights on overnight just in case you need to run out for something since they do not consume that much energy. They are also not as blinding as a regular porch light, meaning that they are going to be more attractive than just having an extremely bright light coming from one place in your yard. And LED outdoor fixtures are also cheaper than buying non-LED yard lighting. In your own home, you can use LED fixtures in places like the kitchen to give a warm glow to space if you regularly get up in the middle of the night for a midnight snack. You can also line a lot of things like your stairs or hallways with LED light strips to make sure that your children feel safe going down the stairs or through the hallways of your home when it's dark. They can not even make a great night light for your kids. And if you are creative enough you can make cool designs from them. Some people even put them behind signs for superhero logos in order to make the logos a unique night light for a kid's bedroom. LEDs are one of the few light sources that offer so much customization in such a little package, that the possibilities of LED light strips really are endless. LED lights to come in several different colors meaning that you can customize the lights to go with the aesthetics of the room you want to put them in. One of the awesome things you can do with LED light strips is put them on a staircase to make it looks fancier. If you have ever seen a lit up staircase in movies then you know exactly what I am talking about. By putting some purple lights on some stairs that are in dark colors, it's going to look quite futuristic and modern. While adding some softer colored LEDs to light-colored stairs will make them have a more homey feel. The great thing about LED strip lights is that they feature a stick-on applicator that lets you attach these lights to pretty much anything in your house. If you wanted you could even put LEDs under your couch or on the ceilings. And as weird as that would look, it would definitely work and that's the coolest thing about decorating with LEDs. Everything's completely up to your imagination. If you wanted to, you could even do something like put LED lights around the rim of your pool. this would make it a lot easier and safer to swim in the evenings. As well as give your pool a fantasy-like glow while you are enjoying a late-night dip. And even playing around white-colored LED light strips lights can look magical if they are put in the right spot. For example, you can either make some pretty expressive art displays out of the strip lights. Or light up a cabinet that you keep your collectibles in. Nothing looks better than a display of awards, figurines or travel momentous with a light above them. How do I get LED lights strips Now as to where can you get LED light strips. You can get colored LED light strips from all over the place. Stores like Walmart sell these in their home fix-up department or lighting department. You can also find them in all your run-of-the-mill home improvement stores and lighting stores. As for the price of LED light strips, it will depend on what type of light strip you want. If you want or light strip that's water-resistant and more durable then you are going to have to pay a little bit more. However, if you are placing the light strips indoors then you can get them for pretty inexpensive. You can find cheap LED light strips for as little as $8 on places like Amazon. Light strips generally do not go above $40 unless you buy them in bulk. They are pretty cheap to invest in due to their long lifespan. And they also are quick to install so they are literally buyer-friendly for everyone. Many LED light strips even come with free shipping to get them to you fast. Just make sure you look at the measurements of the lights that you are going to buy so you know exactly how much lighting you are getting versus how much lighting you need. It's very important to measure the space that you want to put the lights in and then look at all the dimensions online to figure out just how much you need to buy. Also, depending on what you need you can be brighter or dimmer light strips. Each strip will have a description written that will tell you how much power the strip will consume and if you plug it in or if it has a separate battery pack that runs the light strip. If you do not want a cord running from anywhere then I suggest buying light strips that work on batteries so you can just change them out when they run out. The battery boxes for the light strips can also be more easily hidden than a plug-in cord can. And make sure you have everything you need to power your light strips before buying them and read the complete description available to you. If you are not sure about what you are buying do not be afraid to ask questions
Commercial LED Lighting,Warehouse and Upgrade.
Warehouse lights If you own a business spending lots of money just to pay the electricity bill, then new LED warehouse lights are for you. New warehouse lights are known for consuming so less energy. Recently warehouse lights used to consume most of the chunk of electricity. Now, we advise people to use new LED high bay lights and reduce this consumption to 400w, it also depends on the lumen needs of any business or industry.LED lights make a positive impact on the environment, and of course save money on your bill because LED lights are extremely energy efficient, the government of Victoria(Australia) took an initiative to replace old traditional lights to LED lights, and that is done under VEU scheme (Victoria energy upgrade).Source: ·RELATED QUESTIONWhat are the best ways to gain knowledge and become a subject matter expert in a new product closedIn my opinion, the best way to learn something about your product is to use it. Not in an artificial testing situation or powerpoint presentation, but really use it. Walk a mile in your user's shoes. Literally. Go where they work, and do their work for a day using your product. If you need to explain why you are there to external customers (so the people that are serviced by your customers with the help of your product) you can always just say you are new or an intern. Not only will you better understand your users and product, you might come up with idea how to improve your product that your user's could not think about or formulate properly because they don't know what options exist.(As an example that I always use in those situations, I always thought the interface design of one of our apps was really badly thought out and implemented by a sloppy 5th grader, because it broke every single standard of color and size. Until I actually worked in the warehouse where they wore clumsy, protective gloves in shady lighting conditions and orange lights blinking in the background and instead of pulling of the gloves every time they used the computer, they just kept them on and needed a less sophisticated interface because it's hard to hit a normal button with the mouse when you have protective gloves on. From that point on, that user interface was pure genius in my eyes because it really worked for that situation.)
Design Scheme of High Power LED Lighting Power Supply
Abstract: This paper introduces the solution of 350W high efficiency (> 90%) high power factor (> 0.95) led lighting power supply using PFC controller cm6807 and resonant half bridge controller cm6900. The scheme is suitable for up to 1kW power supply, and can be used for LED lighting, LED street lamps, large LED billboards and high-power sports venues lighting.American "Energy Star" and other specifications require that the off-line LED lighting power supply at any power level has high power factor and high energy efficiency. For the low-power LED driving power supply for general lighting, the single-stage power factor correction (PFC) flyback circuit topology based on special controller IC is the most basic solution. This topology is characterized by the use of only one power switch without the use of high-voltage electrolytic capacitors. For 100 200W LED lighting power supply, PFC flyback two-stage circuit architecture is usually adopted. The characteristic of this topology is that PFC boost converter is placed in the front end of flyback converter, and PFC and flyback converter use a power switch respectively. For high-power LED lighting power supply above 200W, the above two topologies are not applicable. The effective solution is to choose the circuit architecture of PFC combined with its inductance inductance capacitance (LLC). In order to achieve high efficiency, the synchronous rectification scheme can be adopted at the secondary side of the main transformer. This paper introduces a design example of 350W LED lighting power supply using this scheme for readers' reference.1 system technical specifications and basic architecture1.1 technical specifications of 350W LED driving power supply(1) Input specificationAC input voltage: 85 264 VAC;AC maximum input current: 5A;Line power factor PF: 0.95 (230VAC, full load);AC power frequency: 47 63Hz;Efficiency: 92% (230VAC, full load);Operating temperature: 50 ℃;Working environment: closed;Heat dissipation mode: natural cooling without fan.(2) Output specificationOutput voltage uo: 36 40V;Output Current IO: 5 10A;Voltage ripple: ≤ 0.3V;Current ripple: 0.1A;Control mode: constant voltage / constant current.1.2 system composition block diagramThe 350W LED lighting power supply is mainly composed of EMI filter, PFC boost converter based on continuous conduction mode (CCM) power factor controller cm6807, LLC resonant half bridge converter based on cm6900 and synchronous rectifier. Figure 1 is the basic architecture block diagram.2 actual circuitThe 350W LED lighting power supply circuit based on cm6807 and cm6900 is shown in Figure 2. We briefly introduce each unit circuit in the system.2.1 PFC boost converter and auxiliary power supplyThe PFC boost converter and auxiliary power circuit of 350W LED lighting power supply are shown in Figure 2 (a).(1) Input stage circuitThe input stage circuit consists of EMI filter and bridge rectifier. It is shown in Figure 2 (a) In, capacitors C3, C4, C5, C11 C14 and inductive elements T1 and T2 constitute input EMI filter; BR1 is bridge rectifier; fu1 is fuse; RT1 is NTC thermistor. EMI filter is used to limit and attenuate common mode and differential mode noise, and RT1 is used to limit surge current caused by charging large capacitor C7 during system startup.(2) Active PFC boost converterPower factor controller U1 (cm6807), power switch vt2, boost inductor L1, boost diode VD3, input capacitor C9 / C10, output capacitor C7, current sensing resistor R4, etc. form DC / DC active PFC boost converter. PFC level circuit works in continuous mode. Input current is detected through U1 pin ② through R5, R8 and R13. Output DC bus voltage (395v) It is sampled by voltage dividers R7, R10, R12 and R13 and fed to U1 pin FB. Pin ④ of U1 is the output of voltage error amplifier, and C17, C18 and C21 are compensation networks. The current through PFC stage is sensed by R4 and detected by U1 pin ③ through R11 and C20. The drive output on U1 pin ⑨ drives VT1 / VT3 and vt2. The function of PFC boost converter is to generate an AC output at the input of bridge rectifier BR1 The sinusoidal current whose input voltage tends to be in the same phase can meet the harmonic current limit requirements specified in iec61000-3-2 standard, the system power factor is much higher than 0.95, and can output a stable DC voltage of 395v within the AC input voltage range of 85 264v.(3) Starting circuit and bias power supplyR5, R8, R6, R9, vt4, VD4 and C16 constitute the shoulder circuit on U1 pin ⑧. Once U1 is started, PFC enters the operating state, and U1 pin ③ is powered by the bias power supply composed of auxiliary windings between L1 pins ③ and ④, C1 and C2, VD1 and VD2, R15, VZ1, vT5 and C16.
Power Integrations Publishes Reference Designs for High Power LED Lighting Applications
San Jose, California, December 16, 2014 - power integrations, a leader in the field of high efficiency and high reliability LED Driver IC (NASDAQ: powi), today launched a new reference design for LED street lamps, industrial mining lamps and other high-power LED lighting applications. The new reference design rdr-382 introduces a hiperpfs using power integrations ™- 2 PFC controller IC and hiperlcs ™ Constant current, 43 V (rated), 150 W reference power supply designed by integrated LLC power stage IC.The traditional two-stage driver adopts independent PFC stage and LLC stage. When generating constant voltage (CV) output, multiple DC-DC converters are required to convert the output to constant current (CC). In contrast, rdr-382 adopts innovative feedback and control scheme, which enables LLC to provide constant current directly at the output. Therefore, the number of elements is reduced by about one third, the efficiency is improved to more than 93%, and the power supply size is greatly reduced after eliminating the DC-DC converter. In addition, the high rated LLC switching frequency (250 kHz) can reduce the size of the required magnetic core components. At the same time, compared with the fixed frequency scheme, the continuous conduction mode variable frequency PFC level can also reduce EMI interference.Andrew Smith, senior product marketing manager of power integrations, said: "reliability is particularly important for high-power lighting applications with an output power of more than 75 W. because the design is efficient, the heat generated is very small and the number of components is less, so it has a longer service life."About power integrationsPower integrations, Inc. is a supplier of high-performance electronic components for high-voltage power conversion systems, headquartered in Silicon Valley. The company's integrated circuits and diodes can help a large number of electronic products, including televisions, PCs, home appliances, smart meters and LED lamps, design compact and energy-efficient AC-DC power supply. SCALE ™ IGBT Driver system can improve the efficiency, reliability and cost-effectiveness of high-power applications, including industrial motors, solar and wind energy systems, electric vehicles and HVDC transmission. Since its inception in 1998, power integrations ecosmart ™ Energy saving technologies have saved billions of dollars in energy consumption and avoided millions of tons of carbon emissions. Due to the role of the company's products in environmental protection, the shares of power integration have been classified into NASDAQ ® Clean Edge ® Green energy index, the cleantech index ® And ardour global IndexSM.
Do I Need to Use the LED Light My Fishtank Came with? Taking Care of Goldfish?
Do not use the light, and do not use the 1.5-gallon tank, either. Two goldfish need a minimum of a 30 or 40 gallon tank, with good filtration. So start by getting a decent tank. Otherwise, you will bring very bad fortune to those goldfish.1. Would you wear a ring with LED light on it?yea i guess so but if it looked cheap or fake then prob not2. led light bulbs overheat and go off?You cooked the LED bulb with over voltage. Some parts might be damaged already,like resistor or even weakening the LED. Put back the power not more than 12 Volts. Damage bulb cannot be repaired because parts causes the same as unit3. Day-Light Sensing LED Light [closed]You have two simple possibilities:4. my LED light comes on to my laptop while the plug is in but it doesnt charge.?Is sound like either the AC adapter has been damaged, through impact or power surge. Or the power management hardware in you laptop has been damaged. If you can find a friend who has an identical adapter to yours (check the power ratings on the bottom of the adapter to tell if the are identical adapter from HP) then test you laptop with his/hers adapter, this will narrow down the problem to either the adapter (In which case you just buy a new one), or your laptop (In which case you get it repaired). P.S You adapter may be producing enough current to inform the laptop of it presence, but not enough to actual power your laptop.5. How long will a car battery last powering just an led light string?the thing about LEDs are they take very little power to run, so is the battery just the power source sitting on a table for the lights??? Or is it in a running car??? not sure what your question is??? if your asking if a well charged battery was to run 6 leds how long would it last, i would guess at least 24 hours if not longer on a full charge...if the leds are the only thing connected...6. Best Sellers: The most popular items in Learning & Education ToysLight-up Terrarium Kit for Kids with LED Light on Lid - Science Kits for Boys & Girls - Gardening Gifts for Children - Kids Toys - Create Your Own Customized Mini Garden in a Jar That Glows at Night7. Bright red LED light in New Year sky?The upper left star of Orion is red, and quite bright. I do not think it was Rudolf.8. Why does this illumination pattern of an LED light going through a small pinhole not emulate the point spread function?You've selected a pinhole that is roughly 100 wavelengths in diameter. That's the problem: even if you focussed the LED onto the pinhole, many secondary maxima (diffraction rings) pass thru the pinhole. To get a "clean" output, ideally you want the pinhole to be about the size of the primary maximum. So if you can calculate the focal length of a lens that will produce a spot on the order of $ 50 mu m$ , you will get a cleaner output. Keep in mind that this calculation requires a decent estimate of the lens' aperture so that you can use the diffraction pattern formulas9. What's the purpose of the RED LED light in the camera when you focus?It is mostly used to adjust the focus (auto-focus inner focus. It relates to direct focus on object) It tells you that focus is set and now ready to click mode. Mostly it does click but in case not able to focus so that's why there is no red light. Red indicator is also to show that it is about to click10. Which LED light is suitable for camping and travelling lighting?Coleman LED. I prefer the Coleman gasoline fueled and buy the aluminum fuel bottles. Siphon tube is also helpful for fueling. I've been using mine at night in a boat.11. How can I make my led light a blinker for my car?Is the LED strip battery powered, could be meant for automobile use? if it somewhat is so as which you only could. whether that's mains powered then that turns into greater doubtful, water-evidence different the time technique splash evidence no longer immersion evidence
Revamp the Aura of Your Living Space with Unconventional LED Uplights
Uplighting is a dynamic and conventional form of decorative lighting which, helps in augmenting the aura of the entire wedding venue. These lighting fixtures are undeniably a ‘must have’ element when it comes to adding light and glory to a wedding. Adding that extra spark to the dance floor or painting the walls with lustre becomes much simpler with these components. However, many of us are still not that much aware of the exact functionality of uplights and thus, here is an overview stated below.A Brief on LED UplightsIt is a type of light fixture which, are generally being installed at the ground level. These products are manufactured to emit light in an upward direction towards the ceiling or sky. Being majorly used for complementing or replacing the conventional downlights, they are regarded as a prime source of accent lighting for both interiors and exteriors. These are also often utilized for highlighting landscaping or architectural features around a home, thereby setting a specific mood or tone.While considering the varied options available to us, considered to uplighting, LEDs surely stand apart. With immense power of illuminating the space, LED lighting deploys little electricity compared to other choices as a result of which, the power concerns are being reduced for the client. Furthermore, LED fixtures release lesser heat and ensures extended durability as well. Thus, what sort of enhancements should be considered before you opt for uplighting? Here are some of them hereby discussed.It helps in augmenting the visibility of the entire room decor. Floral and draping designs are a key decoration piece which, brings enhance the overall ambience and by using outdoor LED lights, you can make it as much impactful as possible.Weddings are full of vibrant colors and pleasing hues all around. However, with the use of this dynamic form of well-projected lighting, add some pops of color to the entire decor of your wedding venue.While considering a low lighting environment, up lights can be deployed for enhancing the architectural features of the venue.Embellishing the wedding venue with LED up lights can bring you another rewarding advantage by letting the photographers capture the real essence of all your priceless memories.Apart from weddings, outdoor LED Up Lights are an unconventional choice indeed for amplifying the grace and splendor of different occasions and events. Thus, if you have a forthcoming celebration to enjoy full to the brim or simply wondering how to bring some additional charm to the outdoors of your home, then these highly efficient lighting fixtures should be your ultimate choice·RELATED QUESTIONWhat's the meaning of Sia's Chandelier song?Before Chandelier, Sia was a singer with mediocre success.She was really struggling to push her career when she lost her partner to an accident. She got addicted to drugs, suffered depression and even wrote a suicide note. Drugs and alcohol were her only coping mechanisms. This song is about the time she was addicted to alcohol and drugs and her struggle to get out of it.In an interview, Sia said that she always knew she was a drinker and that she must stop, her guilt, shame is what the following lyrics suggest:-Sun is up, I'm a messGotta get out now, gotta run from thisHere comes the shame, here comes the shame.. but, out of peer pressurephones blowing up, they're ringing my door bells, I feel the love..she did not stop.1,2,3 ... 1,2,3 drinkthrow them back till I lose countThe only time she could escape from reality was when she was high, under the influence of alcohol and drugs. She could be carefree, live like tomorrow didn't exist.I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, from the chandelierI'm gonna live like tomorrow doesn't existLike it doesn't existI'm gonna fly like a bird through the nightChandelier is ultimately a brutally honest tale of substance abuse.Sia wrote the song for Rihanna but I am so glad that she kept this one for herself.
Electric Eyebrow Trimmer Finishing Touch Flawless Brows Hair Remover LED Light Sale, Price & Reviews
Electric Eyebrow Trimmer Finishing Touch Flawless Brows Hair Remover LED Light Sale, Price & ReviewsWhy buy? Are you still worried about your unwanted eyebrow hair and are you looking for an easy and painless way to get rid of it? The eyebrow trimmer uses a smooth, precision head to gently wrap the natural contours of the skin to cut away unwanted hair on the face, chin, and neck without causing tightness, cuts, redness, or discomfort. irritation. Effective & Painless -- Upgrated Eyebrow Trimmer with precise cutting edge design that erases eyebrow hair instantly within 5 MINUTES and painlessly, Built-in soft LED Light you never miss a hair! This eyebrow trimmer uses a smooth pivoting head to gently follow the natural contours of the skin to closely trim unwanted hair on the face, chin and neck, give you perfect eyebrow shape. No more tweezers, safe eyebrow trimming. Safe & High Technical -- The 18K gold-plated head is hypoallergenic and gentle on all skin types. High quality stainless steel blade and precision head tip leave your skin smooth without any redness or irritation, ensure effective and smooth trimming. Built-in LED Light & Portable -- Built-in soft LED light, so that you can use it in dimly lit environment, also clearly confirm whether the hair is completely cleared. Also, lower niose make you can enjoy eyebrom trimming even though your baby is sleeping! The eyebrow hair remover is powered by AAA battery (not included); Cordless and battery operated features allow it to be carried with easy. Anywhere, anytime! Perfect substitute for the more traditional wax and tweezers. Easy Cleaning & Waterproof -- This is a wet and dry eyebrow trimmer for women. IPX6 100% Waterproof Shaving Technology. Convenient for bathroom use. The detachable blade head is washable, enable you to clean the eyebrow trimmer with free attached brush or running water for simple maintenance. 12-Months Warranty -- If you are unhappy about the painless eyebrow epilator for any other reason, 30 days full refund, 12-months warranty and 365 days technical support. Pain-free eyebrow Grooming. Threading, plucking, waxing, and shaving your brows are painful and sometimes cost hundreds of dollars at beauty salons. Using Automatic Eyebrow Trimmer, you can easily get the eyebrows goal you want by yourself. Most importantly, pain-free! Automatic Eyebrow Trimmer removes the unwanted hair instantly in a gentle way, hence, it's suitable for all skin types. The built-in LED light and the precision tip allows you to locate the unwanted hair accurately. Use it between your brows, above and below, you can get the flawless brows effortlessly. Its small size does not take much space of your makeup bag. Bring it with you on the go and groom your eyebrows anywhere and anytime. FEATURES: Pain-Free: Remove your unwanted hair instantly and pain-free. Gentle on Skin: Suitable for all types of skin. Precision Tip: More accurate on removing even the smallest hairs. LED Light: You can see the unwanted hair clearly. Discreet & Portable: Pen size. You can easily bring it with you to groom your eyebrows anywhere. Easy to Clean: Rinse the tip of the trimmer to the with water. Or use the cleaning brush to sweep the hair off. SPECIFICATIONS: Color: Gold Weight: 60g Size: 1.5cm x 13cm PACKAGE INCLUDES: 1 x Automatic Eyebrow Trimmer— — — — — —Eco-Friendly Gold Heart-Shaped Pendant Necklace for Ladies Sale, Price & Reviews• COD This product supports COD on delivery. Suggestions: Do not place orders with non-COD products, otherwise you will not be able to choose COD payment method. Ship between: , Estimated Shipping Time: business days Order Processing Time may require a few days. Once dispatched from warehouse, Shipping (or Delivery) Time depends on the Shipping Method. • You can enjoy a maximum of interest-free installments, and may not enjoy this offer when placing orders with other products There are two key factors which will affect the time you receive your items.The exact processing time varies depending on the item.The average processing time is 3 working days.but this can also be affected by the item's stock status. For small quantity orders,the processing time is 1-3days while larger quantity orders may require 2-5days. Typically 3-5 days to the UK, 3-7 days to other European countries. Generally, 2-5 days to the Spain, 3-7 days to the Portugal. Shipping from warehouse nearest to shipping address is faster. Additional charges may apply. This is a general guide and delays maybe caused force majeure, natural disasters, inclement weather, war, public holidays, and factors outside our control. Generally speaking, we offer free shipping for Eco-Friendly Gold Heart-Shaped Pendant Necklace for Ladies to United States (US, USA), United Kingdom (UK, GB), Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Brazil, Russia, Japan, Greece, Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Ireland, Lithuania, Israel, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Canada, Australia, Netherlands, Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Ukraine, Romania, Columbia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia etc. Please choose the shipping methods for the final price. The most convenient payment method in the world. Note: please email us the order number,the amount transferred along with currency type,and the exact date of the wire transfer. Note: please email us the following information after you have paid via Westem Union: · Control Number(10 digits) · The exact amount sent along with the currency · Name of sender. · Address of sender With YandexMoney and Webmoney, it is convenient and safe for you to pay via credit card、wallet or cash For Brazil customers, we accept Boleto: you only need to fill in the payment information, remember your Boleto Voucher information and pay it within 3 days at any Boleto stores. For Mexico customers, we accept OXXO: you can choose OXXO payment on our website, and then remember your OXXO Voucher information and pay it within 3 days at any OXXO stores. Do you want to bulk buy ? Please submit your wholesale inquiry below. Please note we usually do not offer free shipping on wholesale orders, but the wholesale price will be a big bargain.
Explain the Key Points of LED Lighting Driving Power Supply in Detail
In order to save energy and power, LED has been greatly promoted, but led needs a power driver, which will directly affect the service life of LED. Therefore, how to do a good LED driving power supply is the top priority of LED power designer. This paper introduces some problems of LED driving power supply, hoping to provide some help to engineers.1. The driving circuit directly affects the service life of LEDThe LED driver we mentioned includes digital driver and analog driver. Digital driver refers to digital circuit driver, including digital dimming control, RGB full-color change, etc. Analog drive refers to analog circuit drive, including AC constant current switching power supply and DC constant current control circuit. The driving circuit is composed of electronic components, including semiconductor components, resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc. these components have service life. The failure of any device will lead to the failure of the whole circuit or some functions. The service life of LED is 50000-100000 hours. If it is continuously lit according to 50000 hours, it has a service life of nearly 6 years. The service life of switching power supply is difficult to reach 6 years. The warranty period of switching power supply sold on the market is generally 2-3 years. The power supply with 6-year warranty is military grade, and the price is 4-6 times that of ordinary power supply. It is difficult for ordinary lamp manufacturers to accept it. Therefore, the faults of LED lamps are mostly driving circuit faults.2. Heat dissipation problemLED is a cold light source, the working junction temperature cannot exceed the limit, and a certain margin should be reserved during design. The design of the whole lamp should consider many aspects, such as beautiful appearance, convenient installation, light distribution, heat dissipation and so on. It is necessary to find a balance point among many factors, so that the overall lamp is the best. The development time of LED lamps is not long, there is not much experience to learn from, and many designs are constantly improved. The power supply used by some LED lamp manufacturers is outsourced or purchased. The lamp designer does not know much about the power supply, so the heat dissipation space for LED is large and that for power supply is small. It is generally to find a suitable power supply after designing the lamps, which brings some difficulty to the power supply. It is often encountered that due to the small internal space or high internal temperature of the lamp, and the low cost control, it is impossible to allocate a suitable power supply. Some LED lamp manufacturers have power R & D capability. The above problems can be solved by evaluating at the initial stage of designing lamps and designing power supply synchronously. In the design, we should comprehensively consider the heat dissipation of LED and power supply, and control the temperature rise of lamps as a whole, so as to design better lamps.3. Problems in power supply designa. Power design. Although the LED has high luminous efficiency, there is still 80-85% heat loss, resulting in a temperature rise of 20-30 degrees inside the lamp. If the room temperature is 25 degrees, there is 45-55 degrees inside the lamp. The power supply works in a high-temperature environment for a long time. In order to ensure the service life, the power margin must be increased, which is generally reserved to 1.5-2 times.b. Component selection. When the internal temperature of the lamp is 45-55 degrees, the internal temperature rise of the power supply is about 20 degrees, and the temperature near the element should reach 65-75 degrees. The parameters of some components will drift at high temperature, and the service life of some components will be shortened. Therefore, the devices should be selected that can be used at high temperature for a long time, with special attention to electrolytic capacitors and wires.C. Electrical performance design. The parameter design of switching power supply for LED is mainly constant current parameter. The size of current determines the brightness of LED. If the batch current error is large, the brightness of the whole batch of lamps is uneven. Moreover, the change of temperature can also cause the output current of the power supply to shift. Generally, the batch error is controlled within / - 5% to ensure the consistent brightness of the lamp. There is deviation in the forward voltage drop of the LED, and the constant current voltage range of the power supply design should include the voltage range of the LED. When multiple LEDs are connected in series, the minimum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the lower limit voltage, and the maximum voltage drop multiplied by the number of connected in series is the upper limit voltage. The constant current voltage range of the power supply is slightly wider than this range. Generally, 1-2v margin is reserved for the upper and lower limits.d. PCB layout design. The size of LED lamps left for the power supply is small (unless it is external to the power supply), so there are high requirements in PCB design and many factors to be considered. Enough safety distance shall be reserved for the power supply requiring input and output isolation. The withstand voltage of primary side circuit and secondary side circuit shall be 1500-2000vac, and at least 3mm distance shall be reserved on the PCB. If it is a lamp with metal shell, the safety distance between the high-voltage part and the shell shall also be considered for the cloth plate of the whole power supply. If there is no space to ensure a safe distance, other measures should be taken to ensure insulation, such as drilling holes on PCB, adding insulating paper, potting insulating glue, etc. In addition, the heat balance shall be considered for the cloth plate, and the heating elements shall be evenly distributed and cannot be placed centrally to avoid local temperature rise. The electrolytic capacitor is far away from the heat source to slow down the aging and prolong the service life.e. Certification issues. At present, there is no standard for LED lamps in China. Relevant national departments are studying and formulating. The certification of lamps sold in China is based on the standards of lighting lamps, while those sold abroad are CE or UL certification, and some are based on foreign LED lamp standards. Therefore, in view of this situation, it is difficult for the design of switching power supply to meet the above standards at the same time. We can only meet different certification according to different requirements.4. Use parameters.The selection of purchased power supply mainly depends on the voltage range of constant current and constant current. The constant current value is lower than the standard current of LED. The selection of voltage range shall be moderate, and try not to select a large range to avoid power waste.
Why Are LEDs so Popular? Discussion on Connector of LED Lighting Standard
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have revolutionized indoor and outdoor lighting. This solid-state lighting (SSL) technology has excellent efficiency, controllability, chromatography, thermal performance and unique shape. It is eliminating the ancient Edison incandescent bulbs (as well as fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps or sodium vapor lamps). Now, most new indoor and outdoor designs and upgrading of existing designs will first consider led. However, designers should be careful. At the same time of rapid innovation, there will also be some hidden dangers, such as non-standard connection and end-user solution mismatch, which will cause a negative customer experience.It is not just the light source itself that has been completely changed. For example, LED lighting is also changing the design and shape of connectors and their fixtures (called lamps). These connectors are an essential part of any lighting system. They do not accept AC line voltage, but lower DC voltage. The typical current is usually between 3 A and 7 a. In addition, LED lighting system is usually part of the control network supporting digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) and zhaga industry standard, and provides intelligent, energy-saving and high-performance lighting as a key link of smart home or office.Therefore, before designing LED lighting system, engineers have the responsibility to be familiar with these standards and their reflection in real-world connectors, because new designs are rising rapidly.This paper briefly reviews why LEDs are so popular, and then introduces and describes these two connection standards to ensure interoperability, rapid development and easy deployment of intelligent LED design. Finally, the connectors of Amphenol ICC are introduced, and as the practical embodiment of relevant standards and their applications, the application of these connectors is summarized.Why are LEDs so popularThere are many factors promoting the development of led into lighting source:Cost reduction promotes the increase of output, which further promotes the reduction of cost and the increase of outputBasic reliability and life enhancement of LED as light sourceThe improvement of the circuit is mainly the improvement of the power supply driving these LEDsImprovement of optical output quality characterized by color temperature (Kelvin) and color rendering index (CRI)Incentives, standards and enforcement measures taken by the government to improve lighting efficiency to save energy (it is estimated that lighting accounts for 15% to 20% of total energy consumption)Development of industry and government standards that ensure interoperability between LED light sources and compatibility with intelligent controllers.The last point is particularly important. An important size category of traditional incandescent bulbs is the "E26" 26 mm (mm) diameter Edison screw bulb, which is almost commonly used in residential environments in the United States and many other countries (Figure 1). It is being replaced by LED and fluorescent bulbs, but to a lesser extent. Of course, there are other sizes, such as E12 base, but E26 is the most widely used at present.Of course, standardizing to a single base and socket can reduce costs. The same technology has also led to a variety of bulb shapes, power levels and other attributes built around this foundation, while reducing concerns about long-term replacement of burned bulbs. Early generations of LED bulbs used E26 base to be compatible with existing sockets, making users accustomed to LED lighting. These E26 LED bulbs are still widely sold because there are countless such sockets in use, so the replacement process will take a long time.However, compared with incandescent lamps, LEDs are very different in current, voltage (DC) and power consumption. Incandescent bulbs usually use 120 / 240 V AC power supply. In addition, the wire of E26 socket often has relatively large threaded terminals, which is not ideal for LED light source power supply (Fig. 2). Therefore, new standards and connector types are needed in order for LEDs to give full play to their potential from the system level to the physical connection level.Recognizing the needs of modern lighting interface standards, the Digital Lighting Interface Alliance (diia) developed the Dali standard.The Dali standard redefines lighting connectionsDali is a special protocol for digital lighting control, which can easily realize firm, scalable and flexible lighting network installation (Figure 3). The first version dali-1 is more suitable for digital control, configuration and query of fluorescent lamp ballasts, and less led factors are considered. It replaces the simple, unidirectional and broadcast operation of the existing 0 / 1 to 10 volt analog control mode.The standard also includes a broadcast option. Through simple reconfiguration, each Dali device can be assigned a separate address, allowing digital control of a single device. In addition, Dali devices can also be programmed for grouping operation, so that the lighting system can be reconfigured through software to avoid changing wiring.With the growth of user expectations and the improvement of LED technology, the development of dali-2 standard is promoted. Dali-2 is not only an industry standard, but also a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62386). Dali-2 adds many new commands and functions. Dali-1 only includes control mode, while dali-2 covers control devices, such as application controllers and input devices (such as sensors), as well as bus power supply. It focuses on the interoperability of products from different manufacturers, and is supported by dali-2 certification plan to confirm the compatibility between products and specifications (Figure 4).Like all comprehensive standards, dali-2 is complex. In short, with a single line pair as the bus, each device on the Dali network can be addressed separately. The bus is used to provide both signals and power. The supported power supply can provide up to 250 Ma at 16 V DC (typical). This standard supports equipment powered by AC lines or DC power rails.Although various standards define ultra-low voltage (ELV), IEC defines ELV equipment or circuit as: the potential difference between electrical conductor and grounding does not exceed AC 50V or DC 120V. Dali control cable is classified as ELV equipment, so it only needs to be basically insulated from AC mains power; It can be routed together with mains lines or multi-core cables including mains lines.Beyond dali-2: zhaga specification, aiming at lampsDali-2 and other standards are important, but they can only stop there. It is not within the scope of its definition to define how to link standards to specific applications, such as LED lighting and lamps. In order to solve this problem, the international zhaga alliance has formulated the interface industry specification of components used in LED lamps. The alliance is a member project of IEEE industry standards and technology organization. As of 2019, it has more than 120 members.It's time to find out the difference between lighting equipment and lamps. The term "luminaire" is used in the lighting Engineering Society (ies) lighting manual, ANSI / NEMA standards and IEC. It was added to the National Electrical Code (NEC) manual in 2002 and is officially defined as "a complete lighting unit consisting of one or more lamps and components designed to distribute light, locate and protect the lamp tube and connect the lamp tube to the power supply". Lamps include lamps and all parts directly related to the distribution, positioning and protection of lighting devices, excluding supporting parts, such as arms, ribs or rods; Fasteners for fixing lamps; Control or safety devices; Or power lead. Lamps have a variety of forms and are suitable for various occasions, from outdoor street lighting with strict functions to indoor office lighting, and even "fashionable" retail or home lighting."Lighting equipment" is not defined in NEC and generally refers to anything in the mind of the user, which may include some or all of the following elements: lamp tube (bulb), perhaps with lampshade, lamp ball, lens or diffuser, support, lamp pole or lamp accessories, and other elements.The official name of the zhaga specification is books (specification), which aims at electrical, mechanical, optical, thermal and communication interfaces and allows the interoperability of components. By following the zhaga specification, designers can ensure that users have interoperable, replaceable or repairable components, and that led lamps can be upgraded when new technologies appear after installation.Zhaga Book 18 and book 20 are particularly useful for designers who use LED lamps; The former focuses on outdoor design, while the latter is for indoor applications.Zhaga Book 18: "intelligent interface between outdoor lamps and sensing / communication modules" specifies the contents of power supply and communication. In addition, it also specifies the mechanical coordination and electrical pins of the connection system defined in version 1.0. It simplifies the addition of application modules, such as adding sensors and communication nodes to LED lamps, and ensures plug and play interoperability.Zhaga book 20: "intelligent interface between indoor lamps and sensing / communication modules" defines the intelligent interface between indoor LED lamps and sensing / communication nodes. The node is connected to the LED driver and control system, and can usually provide sensor input or realize communication between network components. Nodes can be installed and replaced on site.epilogueLED lighting has greatly changed the indoor and outdoor lighting of industry, commerce and residence. It combines energy efficiency, long life and flexibility of lamp configuration almost perfectly.Editing: hfy
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